“Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) LB-100 purchase on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 degrees C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity
of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential < 111 > texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing MK-8931 nmr surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory.”
“SETTING: Victoria, Australia.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and control of tuberculosis (TB) in Victoria, 2005-2010.
DESIGN: Retrospective review of laboratory-confirmed
TB in Victoria, 2005-2010. State TB reference laboratory records were matched with Department of Health
notification records to obtain laboratory, demographic, clinical and treatment data.
RESULTS: The incidence of TB fell HIF inhibitor in the Australian-born population but increased overall, reflecting an increase in the proportion of overseas-born cases from 88.9% to 95.8% between 2005 and 2010 (P = 0.03). Patients from India and Viet wNam accounted for over one third of all cases. For overseas-born cases, the median time between arrival and diagnosis was 4 years. Half of all diagnoses were pulmonary disease, of which 45.4% were Ziehl-Neelsen smear-positive. Treatment was most commonly self-administered (76.9%), and very few patients defaulted or failed treatment (1.1%). Only 4.1% of cases were linked to another laboratory-confirmed case. Multidrug-resistant TB remained uncommon (1.7% of cases).
CONCLUSIONS: TB in Victoria remains low by global standards and continues to overwhelmingly affect the overseas-born population. Current TB control strategies in Victoria are effective, but strengthened control in high-burden countries will also improve TB control locally.”
“P-type InAs excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been shown to be a strong emitter of terahertz radiation. In a direct comparison between a p-InAs emitter and conventional thermal radiation sources, we demonstrate that under typical excitation conditions p-InAs produces more radiation below 1.