Identification of the stable and reactive metabolites of tetrahydropiperine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector and high-resolution mass spectrometry
Xiaoling Chen 1, Yanghua Li 2
1. Department of Laboratory, Jinmen First People’s Hospital, No. 67 Xiangshan Avenue, Jinmen 448000, Hubei Province, China
2. Department of Pharmacy, Jinmen First People’s Hospital, No. 67 Xiangshan Avenue, Jinmen 448000, Hubei Province, China
Department of Pharmacy, Jinmen First People’s Hospital, No. 67 Xiangshan Avenue, Jinmen 448000, Hubei Province, China
Tel: +86-724-8606076, Fax: +86-724-8606076
Email: [email protected]
This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/rcm.8975
Rationale: Tetrahydropiperine is one of the natural aryl-pentanamide compounds isolated from Piper nigrum L, which has been demonstrated to have insecticide activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic profiles of tetrahydropiperine in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human hepatocytes.
Methods: The in vitro metabolism of tetrahydropiperine was elucidated via incubation with hepatocytes for 2 h at 37 oC. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry operated in positive electrospray ionization mode. The structures of the metabolites were characterized by their retention times and their MS/MS product ions.
Results: A total of 20 metabolites were detected and their structures were proposed. These metabolites were formed mainly through the following pathways: 1) 1,3-benzodioxole ring opening to form a catechol derivative (M12), which was prone to glucuronidation (M6 and M8), methylation (M17), and GSH-derived conjugation through an ortho quinone intermediate (M4) or via an aldehyde intermediate (M7); 2) dehydrogenation to form a piperanine (M15), which was subsequently subject to hydroxylation (M2 and M5) and GSH conjugation (M10 and M11) via Michael addition; 3) hydroxylation (M13, M14, M16, M18 and M19); and 4) direct GSH conjugation through an aldehyde intermediate (M3).
Conclusion: The major metabolic pathways of tetrahydropiperine were hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, methylation, GSH conjugation and glucuronidation. Tetrahydropiperine was bioactivated through ortho-quinone, Michael receptor and aldehyde intermediates.
Keywords: Tetrahydropiperine, metabolite characterization, bioactivation, metabolic pathway,
Piper nigrum L (family of Piperaceae), known as pepper, has been widely used as a food additive and for medicinal purposes in China for thousands of years 1-2. Alkaloids were found to be the major bioactive constituents of P. nigrum 3-5. Tetrahydropiperine [5-(3,4- methylenedioxyphenyl)-pentanoylpiperidine] is the first natural aryl pentanamide from P. nigrum 6, which has been demonstrated to have desirable insecticide effect 7. Previous study has shown that topical treatment with tetrahydropiperine stimulated even pigmentation in mice, suggesting that this compound is a potential treatment for vitiligo 8.
To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports regarding the metabolism of tetrahydropiperine. Metabolism studies play a key role not only in the lead generation and optimization process but also in the drug development stage. In early stages, drug metabolism studies provide rationales for lead optimization to obtain a candidate with desirable ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) profiles. In late stages, drug metabolism results aid in designing clinical experiments. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that metabolites should be taken into consideration in safety assessment, especially for the disproportional human metabolites 9. In some cases, drugs are metabolized into reactive metabolites, which are associated with the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Characterization of the metabolic pathways of a drug is an integral part of drug discovery in eliminating potential safety liability associated with the formation of reactive
metabolites 10, 11. An unwanted metabolic profile is one of the major causes of drug
discontinuation or post-market withdrawal 12. One of the goals of preclinical metabolism studies is to predict clinical human metabolism. However, species-based metabolic differences
complicate the value of preclinical studies, which makes human pharmacokinetic prediction unreliable 11. Therefore, investigation of the metabolism of a drug in different species is of great importance for clinical human pharmacokinetic prediction. Hepatocytes obtained from liver tissue are widely used for drug metabolism studies as they represent a more complete system in which to investigate drug metabolism than liver microsomes 13. Metabolite identification still remains a challenge due to the complexity of the biological matrix and the low concentration of the metabolites. In addition, some metabolites are unpredictable, which makes the identification more difficult. In recent years, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry has become a reliable and effective tool for metabolite identification and profiling, which provides accurate masses and structural information of the metabolites 14-17.
To better understand the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the safety profiles, it is of great importance to identify the metabolites of tetrahydropiperine in different species. The aim of this study was 1) to identify the metabolites of tetrahydropiperine in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human hepatocytes by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD- HRMS/MS), 2) to elucidate the bioactivation mechanism and 3) to propose the metabolic pathways. As far as we know, this is the first report regarding the metabolism of tetrahydropiperine, which provides an overview of the metabolic profiles in different species.
⦁ Materials and methods
⦁ Chemicals and reagents
The standard of tetrahydropiperine (purity > 98%) was purchased from Shanghai PureOne Biotechnology Co. Ltd (Shanghai, China). Piperanine with purity of 97.7% was obtained from Sichuan Victory Biotechnology Co. Ltd (Chengdu, China). Pooled Sprague-Dawley rat liver microsomes (male, pooled from 20 donors), cryopreserved human (male, pooled from 12 donors) and cynomolgus monkey (male, pooled from 4 donors) hepatocytes were purchased from Shanghai RILD Research Institute for Liver Diseases Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Cryopreserved CD-1 mouse (mixed gender, pooled from 100 donors), Sprague-Dawley rat (mixed gender, pooled from 150 donors) and Beagle dog (male, pooled from 6 donors) hepatocytes were purchased from BD Gentest (Woburn, MA, USA). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate tetrasodium salt (NADPH), MgCl2, methoxylamine, HPLC- grade acetonitrile and LC-MS grade formic acid were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Water for LC/MS analysis was produced from a Milli-Q Water Purification System (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA, USA).
⦁ Incubation of tetrahydropiperine in hepatocyte
A stock solution of tetrahydropiperine (10 mM) was prepared in methanol. The working solution was prepared at 20 μM through stepwise dilution using Williams’ E medium. Cryopreserved hepatocytes were carefully thawed according to manufacturer’s instructions. The hepatocyte was suspended in Williams’ E medium and the cell viability was determined to be >80%. The cell density was adjusted to 2 × 106 cell/mL. 200 μL of hepatocyte suspension and an equal volume of tetrahydropiperine working solution were then mixed. The mixture was incubated in an environmentally controlled incubator (5% CO2, 95% humidity, 37 oC). Incubations without tetrahydropiperine served as blank controls. After incubation for 0 and 2
h, the reaction was quenched by adding 400 μL of ice-cold acetonitrile and the mixture was centrifuged at 12,000 g for 10 min. The resulting supernatant was dried under nitrogen gas and the residue was reconstituted with 100 μL of acetonitrile-water solution (v/v, 1:4). After centrifuging again, an aliquot of 2 μL of the supernatant was submitted for analysis by UHPLC- DAD-HRMS/MS for metabolite profiling and identification.
⦁ Trapping experiments
Trapping experiments on tetrahydropiperine (final concentration 10 μM) were carried out with RLM (Rossmann-like motif unit) in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The incubation mixtures were prepared in a final volume of 200 μL, containing RLM (1 mg protein/mL), methoxylamine (5 mM), tetrahydropiperine (10 μM), NADPH (2 mM) and MgCl2 (3 mM). The incubation was performed in a water bath at 37 °C. After incubation for 60 min, the reaction was terminated by adding 600 μL of ice-cold acetonitrile. The mixture was then centrifuged at 12000 g for 10 min and the resulting supernatant was dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was re-dissolved with 200 μL of water-acetonitrile solution (1:4, v/v). After centrifuging again, a 2 μL aliquot of the supernatant was submitted for UHPLC-DAD- HRMS/MS analysis.
⦁ Instrumental conditions
Chromatographic separation for the metabolite profiling and identification was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d., 1.7 μm; Thermo Fisher Scientific) using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 UHPLC system (Thermo Fisher Scientific) equipped with a quaternary solvent pump, on-line degasser, column compartment, auto-sampler and a diode array detector. The mobile phase was a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and
acetonitrile (B). The gradient elution was optimized as: 10% B at 0-1 min, 10-30% B 1-6 min, 30-90% B 6-12 min, 90% B at 12-14 min, and 10% B at 14-16 min. The column temperature was maintained at 40 oC and the auto-sampler temperature was 10 oC. The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The eluted fractions were monitored by a diode array detector recording from 190 to 400 nm. The injection volume was 2 μL.
Mass spectra were acquired using a Q-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The source conditions were optimized as: spray voltage 3.0 kV, sheath gas (N2) flow rate 40 arbitrary units (arb), auxiliary gas (N2) flow rate 10 arb, capillary temperature 300 oC, sweep gas (N2) flow rate 5 arb, S-lens voltage 50 V, auxiliary gas temperature 200 oC. Data were recorded from m/z 50 to 1000 in centroid mode. MS/MS data were obtained with a collision energy of 15-30 eV. UHPLC and MS control was performed with Xcalibur Version
2.3.1 software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The drug-containing samples were processed using MetWorks software (Version 1.3 SP3, Thermo Fisher Scientific) with mass defect filtering used to remove interferences from the matrix, which facilitated the characterization of the metabolites.
⦁ Results and discussion
⦁ Mass spectral analysis of tetrahydropiperine
To characterize the structure of the metabolites, the fragmentation of tetrahydropiperine first needs to be investigated. Positive and negative ion modes were both tested. initially Although tetrahydropiperine showed a very low response in negative mode, on the contrary, a strong
response was observed in positive ion mode. Therefore, positive ion mode was selected for
detection. Under the current LC/MS conditions, tetrahydropiperine was detected at 9.86 min, with its protonated molecule [M+H]+ at m/z 290.1749 (Calcd. m/z 290.1750) as expected from the elemental composition of C17H23NO3. The product ion spectrum of the [M+H]+ ion and the fragmentation patterns are displayed in Figure 1. The mass measurement accuracy of all the product ions was better than 5 ppm. Cleavage of the amide bond resulted in a pair of product ions at m/z 86.0966 and 205.0848. The ion at m/z 168.1381 was formed by cleavage of the 1,3- benzodioxole moiety. The ion at m/z 112.0754 was attributed to the piperidine-1-formyl moiety derived from cleavage of the C-C bond at the α position to the amide, while the ion at m/z 161.0597 resulted from cleavage of the C-C bond at the β position to the amide. These product ions provided structural information for tetrahydropiperine, which was informative for identifying its metabolites.
⦁ UHPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis of the metabolites
By comparing the UHPLC/HRMS chromatograms of the drug-containing samples with those of control samples, a total of twenty metabolites including two glucuronidation metabolites and six GSH-derived metabolites were found and their identities were proposed. Figure 2 shows the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of the drug-containing samples from different species. Table 1 summarizes the detailed information of the metabolites, including the retention time, mass shift, elemental composition, measured and calculated m/z values, mass error and indicative product ions. Because metabolite has a similar chromophore to the parent drug, the metabolite and parent show a similar UV response. Therefore, LC-UV chromatograms are able to reflect the relative quantity of the metabolites and parent. The metabolic profiles of
tetrahydropiperine in hepatocytes, as indicted by the LC-UV chromatograms (λ: 288 nm), are displayed in Figure 3. M6, M12, M13 and M17 were the predominant metabolites in mouse hepatocyte and M6, M12 and M13 were the major metabolites in rat hepatocyte. In dog hepatocyte, M17 was the most abundant metabolite, whereas in monkey hepatocyte, M12, M13 and M15 were the major metabolites. In human hepatocyte, all the metabolites were minor.
⦁ Identification of the stable metabolites
⦁ Metabolite M1
M1 was detected at 4.42 min. It had a [M+H]+ ion at m/z 294.1693, which suggested that the elemental composition of this metabolite was C16H23NO4. The elemental composition shift of
–C+O suggested that this metabolite originated from 1,3-benzodioxole ring opening. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S1, supporting information) provided two indicative product ions at m/z 193.0848 and 149.0589, 12 m/z units lower than those of parent compound (m/z 205.0848 and 161.0589), which confirmed the ring opening of 1,3-benzodioxole. The base peak at m/z 102.0915 together with the ion at m/z 84.0812 suggested that hydroxylation occurred at the piperidine moiety.
⦁ Metabolites M2 and M5
M2 and M5 were detected at 4.54 and 4.92 min, respectively. They had the same [M+H]+ ion at m/z 304.1534 (elemental composition C17H21NO4). The elemental composition shift of +O- H2 suggested that both metabolites originated from hydroxylation with dehydrogenation. The product ions at m/z 128.0705, 102.0915 and 84.0812 (Figure S1) suggested that hydroxylation occurred at piperidine moiety. The product ions at m/z 203.0700, 135.0441 and 161.0594 indicated that the modification of -H2 occurred at the α, β position of the carbonyl group.
⦁ Metabolites M6 and M8
M6 and M8 were detected at 5.31 and 5.56 min, respectively, and both yielded [M+H]+ ions at m/z 454.2071 (elemental composition C22H31NO9). The elemental composition shift of – C+C6H8O6 suggested that both metabolites were glucuronide conjugates of M12. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S1, supporting information) showed neutral loss of a glucuronyl group (176 Da) to form the product ion at m/z 278.1737. The other product ions at m/z 193.0851 and 86.0965 were identical to those of M12.
⦁ Metabolite M12
M12 was detected at 6.34 min with an [M+H]+ ion at m/z 278.1746. The elemental composition of this metabolite was C16H23NO3, which suggested that this metabolite originated from 1,3- benzodioxole ring opening. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S1, supporting information) provided two indicative product ions at m/z 193.0855 and 149.0594, 12 m/z units lower than those of the parent compound (m/z 205.0848 and 161.0589), which confirmed the ring opening of 1,3-benzodioxole.
⦁ Metabolites M13, M16 and M19
M13, M16 and M19 were detected at 6.39, 6.90 and 7.76 min, respectively. They had the same [M+H]+ ion at m/z 306.1691. The elemental composition of all three metabolites was C17H23NO4, which suggested that these metabolites originated from hydroxylation of the parent compound. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S2, supporting information) provided two indicative product ions at m/z 102.0915 and 84.0811, which demonstrated that hydroxylation occurred at the piperidine moiety. The other product ions at m/z 205.0855 and 161.0594 were identical to those of the parent compound.
⦁ Metabolite M14
M14 was detected at 6.48 min. It had an [M+H]+ ion at m/z 322.1636. The elemental composition of C17H23NO5 suggested that this metabolite originated from bis-hydroxylation of the parent compound. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S2, supporting information) provided two indicative product ions at m/z 118.0863 and 100.0760, which demonstrated that bis- hydroxylation occurred at the piperidine moiety. The other product ions at m/z 205.0857 and 161.0595 were similar to those of the parent compound.
⦁ Metabolite M15
M15 was detected at 6.50 min. Its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 288.1594 (elemental composition C17H21NO3). The elemental composition shift of -H2 suggested that M15 originated from dehydrogenation. The product ions at m/z 203.0697, 135.0438 and 161.0594 (Figure S2, supporting information) indicated that the modification of -H2 occurred at the α, β position of the carbonyl group. M15 showed an identical retention time, accurate mass and product ions to those of a reference standard of piperanine (Figure S3, supporting information). Therefore, M15 was unambiguously identified as piperanine.
⦁ Metabolite M17
M17 was detected at 7.14 min. Its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 292.1909 (elemental composition C17H25NO3), suggesting this metabolite originated from 1,3-benzodioxole ring opening followed by methylation. The product ions at m/z 207.1016, 168.1385 and 163.0754 (Figure S2, supporting information) further confirmed the occurrence of ring opening of 1,3- benzodioxole and methylation.
⦁ Metabolite M18
M18 was detected at 7.53 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 306.1693. The elemental composition was C17H23NO4, suggesting that this metabolite originated from hydroxylation of the parent compound. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S4, supporting information) provided three indicative product ions at m/z 168.1380, 112.0757 and 86.0968, which demonstrated that the piperidine moiety remained unmodified. The other product ions at m/z 221.0801 and 177.0543 suggested that hydroxylation occurred at the 1,3-benzodioxole moiety.
⦁ Metabolite M20
M20 was detected at 11.06 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 288.1591 (elemental composition C17H21NO3), The elemental composition shift of –H2 suggested that this metabolite originated from dehydrogenation of the parent compund. The MS/MS spectrum (Figure S4, supporting information) provided two indicative product ions at m/z 110.0602 and 84.0812, which suggested that dehydrogenation occurred at the piperidine moiety. The other product ions at m/z 205.0857 and 161.0595 were identical to those of the parent compound.
⦁ Identification of the reactive metabolites
M3 was detected at 4.65 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 466.2006. The elemental composition was C22H31N3O6S, which provided evidence of Cys-Gly cyclization and formation of a thiazolidine derivative. Its MS/MS spectrum (Figure S4, supporting information) displayed an indicative product ion at m/z 288.1594, which was formed by the loss of the thiazolidine moiety (178.0412 Da). The product ion at m/z 205.0859 was similar to that of the parent compound. The proposed mechanism of the formation of this metabolite involved initial
oxidation of the piperidine via bioactivation to a carbinolamine intermediate followed by ring- opening to a reactive aldehyde intermediate 18. To confirm the presence of the aldehyde intermediate, an additional incubation with RLM was performed using methoxylamine as a trapping agent. As expected, a methoxylamine adduct (m/z 355.1968) was detected (as shown in Figure S6, supporting information). On the one hand, the aldehyde intermediate can react with methoxylamine to form Schiff base, while on the other, it can conjugate with the thiol group of GSH and the resulting mercaptomethanol can then ring-close to a thiazolidine with cleavage of the glutamate moiety 19. The possible bioactivation mechanisms are shown in Figure 4.
M4 was detected at 4.74 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 583.2413 (elemental composition C26H38N4O9S), which provided evidence of GSH conjugation. Its MS/MS spectrum (Figure S4, supporting information) displayed two indicative product ions at m/z 508.2102 and 454.1994, which were formed by the losses of glycinyl (75 Da) and glutamyl (129 Da), respectively. The proposed mechanism of the formation of this metabolite (Figure 4) involved initial oxidation of M12 (catechol derivative) to an ortho quinone intermediate, followed by conjugation with the thiol group of GSH 18.
M7 was detected at 5.41 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 454.2016. Its elemental composition of C21H31N3O6S provided evidence of Cys-Gly cyclization and formation of a thiazolidine moiety. Its MS/MS spectrum (Figure S5, supporting information) displayed an indicative product ion at m/z 276.1596, which was formed by the loss of the thiazolidine
(178.0420 Da). The proposed mechanism of the formation of this metabolite was similar to that of M3 (Figure 4).
M9 was detected at 5.97 min, and its [M+H]+ ion was observed at m/z 482.1967. Its elemental composition was C22H31N3O7S, which provided evidence of Cys-Gly cyclization and formation of a thiazolidine moiety. Its MS/MS spectrum (Figure S5, supporting information) displayed an indicative product ion at m/z 306.1693, which was formed by the loss of the thiazolidine (176.0174 Da). The other product ions at m/z 221.0809, 168.1382 and 86.0969 were similar to those of M18.
Metabolites M10 and M11
M10 and M11 were detected at 6.08 and 6.19 min, respectively. They had the same [M+H]+ ion at m/z 595.2407 (elemental composition C27H38N4O9S), 307 m/z units higher than that of M15, suggesting that they were GSH conjugates of M15. Their MS/MS spectra (Figure S5, supporting information) showed an indicative product ion at m/z 466.2008 which was formed through the loss of glutamyl moiety (129.0407 Da). The product ions at m/z 308.0899 and 179.0480 were GSH-associated ions while those at m/z 288.1584 and 84.0807 were parent molecule-related ions. The possible mechanism of the formation of both metabolites was proposed to be through Michael addition of one molecule of GSH to M15 (as shown in Figure 4).
⦁ Biotransformation pathways of tetrahydropiperine
Based on the identified metabolites, in vitro biotransformation pathways of tetrahydropiperine were proposed, as shown in Figure 5. Tetrahydropiperine was metabolized through the
following pathways. The first pathway was oxidation, which led to 1,3-benzodioxole ring opening to form a catechol derivative (M12). The catechol derivative was further subject to methylation (M17), glucuronidation (M6 and M8), hydroxylation (M1), and oxidation to form an ortho quinone intermediate followed by GSH conjugation (M4) or hydroxylation to an aldehyde intermediate followed by GSH conjugation to form a thiazoline derivative (M7). The second pathway was dehydrogenation, leading to the formation of piperanine (M15). This metabolite was further susceptible to hydroxylation (M2 and M5) or GSH conjugation through Michael addition (M10 and M11). The third pathway was hydroxylation (M13, M16, M18 and M19), and the fourth was hydroxylation of piperidine to form a carbinolamine intermediate, which further resulted in an aldehyde intermediate. This intermediate was susceptible to GSH conjugation to form a thiazoline derivative (M3). Taken together, the principal biotransformation pathways of tetrahydropiperine involved hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, methylation, glucuronidation and GSH conjugation. The principal bioactivation pathways of tetrahydropiperine werre mainly through ortho quinone, Michael receptor and aldehyde intermediates.
The in vitro metabolism of tetrahydropiperine was investigated through incubation with hepatocytes from different species. A total of 20 metabolites from five species were detected and profiled by UHPLC-DAD-HRMS/MS. Their proposed structures were based on their product ions and accurate mass measurements. The major biotransformation pathways of tetrahydropiperine were hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, methylation, GSH conjugation and
glucuronidation. Tetrahydropiperine was bioactivated through ortho-quinone, Michael receptor and aldehyde intermediates. This study provided an overview of the metabolic profiles of tetrahydropiperine and the bioactivation pathways, which should be helpful in understanding the disposition of this compound.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
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Table 1. Summary of the metabolites in hepatocyte incubation identified by UHPLC-DAD-HRMS/MS
Peak No. RT
(min) Elemental composition Mass shift Meas
m/z Error (ppm)
M1 4.42 C16H23NO4 3.9943 294.1693 294.1700 -2.4 193.0848, 149.0589, 102.0915, 84.0812 M, R,
M2 4.54 C17H21NO4 13.9784 304.1534 304.1543 -3.0 203.0700, 161.0594, 135.0441, 128.0705, 102.0915, 84.0812 M
M3 4.65 C22H31N3O6S 176.0256 466.2006 466.2006 0.0 288.1593, 205.0859, 84.0813 M, R, D, Mk, H
M4 4.74 C26H38N4O9S 293.0663 583.2413 583.2432 -3.3 508.2102, 454.1994, 308.1306, 86.0976 M, R, D, Mk, H
M5 4.92 C17H21NO4 13.9784 304.1534 304.1543 -3.0 203.0700, 161.0594, 135.0441, 128.0705, 102.0915, 84.0812 M
M6 5.31 C22H31NO9 164.0321 454.2071 454.2072 -0.2 278.1737, 193.0815, 86.0965 M, R, D, Mk, H
M7 5.41 C21H31N3O6S 164.0266 454.2016 454.2006 2.2 276.1596, 193.0859, 84.0813 M, R, D, Mk, H
M8 5.56 C22H31NO9 164.0321 454.2071 454.2072 -0.2 278.1737, 193.0815, 86.0965 D
M9 5.97 C22H31N3O7S 192.0217 482.1967 482.1955 2.5 306.1693, 221.0809, 168.1382, 86.0964 M, D, Mk
M10 6.08 C27H38N4O9S 305.0657 595.2407 595.2432 -4.2 466.2008, 308.1899, 288.1584, 179.0480, 84.0807 D
M11 6.19 C27H38N4O9S 305.0657 595.2407 595.2432 -4.2 466.2008, 308.1899, 288.1584, 179.0480, 84.0807 M, D, Mk
M12 6.34 C16H23NO3 -12.0004 278.1746 278.1751 -1.8 193.0855, 149.0594, 112.0757, 86.0967 M, R, D, Mk, H
M13 6.39 C17H23NO4 15.9941 306.1691 306.1700 -2.9 205.0855, 161.0594, 102.0915, 84.0811 M, R, D, Mk, H
M14 6.48 C17H23NO5 31.9886 322.1636 322.1649 -4.0 205.0857, 161.0595, 118.0863, 100.0760 M, D, Mk
M15 6.50 C17H21NO3 -2.0156 288.1594 288.1594 0.0 203.0697, 161.0594, 135.0438, 112.0758, 86.0968 M, R, D, Mk, H
M16 6.90 C17H23NO4 15.9943 306.1693 306.1700 -2.3 205.0855, 161.0594, 102.0915, 84.0811 D, Mk
M17 7.14 C17H25NO3 2.0159 292.1909 292.1907 0.7 207.1016, 168.1385, 163.0754, 112.0754, 86.0966 M, R, D, Mk
M18 7.53 C17H23NO4 15.9943 306.1693 306.1700 -2.3 221.0801, 177.0543, 168.1380, 112.0757, 86.0968 D, Mk
M19 7.76 C17H23NO4 15.9943 306.1693 306.1700 -2.3 205.0855, 161.0594, 102.0915, 84.0811 D, Mk
M20 11.06 C17H21NO3 -2.0159 288.1591 288.1594 -1.0 205.0857, 166.1225, 161.0595, 112.0602, 84.0812 M, R, D, Mk, H
Parent 9.86 C17H23NO3 0.0000 290.1750 290.1751 -0.3 205.0848, 168.1381, 161.0597, 112.0754, 86.0966 M, R, D, Mk, H
M, R, D, Mk and H represent mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human hepatocytes, respectively.
Figure 1. MS/MS spectrum and the proposed fragmentation patterns of tetrahydropiperine
Figure 2. Total ion chromatograms (TICs) of tetrahydropiperine and its metabolites from hepatocyte incubations
Figure 3. LC-UV (λ: 288 nm) chromatograms of tetrahydropiperine and its metabolites from hepatocyte incubations
Figure 4. Proposed mechanisms of the bioactivation of tetrahydropiperine
Figure 5. Proposed metabolic pathways of tetrahydropiperine in hepatocytes