We found that only dlPFC rTMS significantly affected performance,

We found that only dlPFC rTMS significantly affected performance, with rTMS of right dlPFC decreasing accuracy on delayed-recall trials, and rTMS of left and right dlPFC decreasing and enhancing accuracy, respectively, on delayed-recognition trials. These findings confirm that the dlPFC plays an important role in memory-guided response,

and suggest that the nature of this role varies depending on the processes-required for making a response. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Historically dilation of the female urethra was thought to be of value in the treatment of a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms. Subsequent work has more accurately classified these complaints as parts of various diseases or syndromes in which scant FHPI datasheet data exist to support the use of dilation. Yet Medicare reimbursement for www.selleckchem.com/products/SP600125.html urethral dilation remains generous and we describe practice patterns regarding female urethral dilation to characterize a potential quality of care issue.

Materials and Methods: Health care use by females treated with urethral

dilation was compiled using a complementary set of databases. Data sets were examined for relevant inpatient, outpatient and emergency room services for women of all ages.

Results: Female urethral dilation is common (929 per 100,000 patients) and is performed almost as much as treatment for male urethral stricture disease. Approximately 12% of these patients are subjected to costly studies such as retrograde urethrography. The overall national costs for treatment exceed $61 million per year and have increased 10% to 17% a year since 1994. A diagnosis of female urethral stricture increases health care expenditures by more than $1,800 per individual per year in insured populations.

Conclusions: Urethral dilation is still common despite the fact that true female urethral stricture is an uncommon entity. This scenario is likely secondary to the persistence of the mostly discarded practice of dilating the unstrictured female urethra for a wide variety of complaints despite the lack of data suggesting that it improves lower

urinary tract symptoms.”
“Hemispheric differences in the use of memory retrieval cues were examined in a continuous recognition design, using visual half-field presentation to bias the Vinorelbine Tartrate processing of test words. A speeded recognition task revealed general accuracy and response time advantages for items whose test presentation was biased to the left hemisphere. A second experiment recorded event-related brain potentials in the same design and replicated these behavioral effects, but found no electrophysiological support for the hypothesis that test words biased to the left hemisphere elicit superior recognition. Instead, successful retrieval was accompanied by memory components of identical strength regardless of test field.

When systemically administered within an interval of 2h, previous

When systemically administered within an interval of 2h, previous administration of methylphenidate (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) did not modify locomotor activation induced by methamphetamine. On the other hand, previous administration of methamphetamine (1mg/kg,i.p.) markedly potentiated methylphenidate-induced motor activation. With in vivo microdialysis experiments, Selleck Lonafarnib methamphetamine and methylphenidate were found to increase DA extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAs). Methamphetamine, but not methylphenidate, significantly increased the extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) in the NAs. Methamphetamine-induced 5-HT release remained significantly elevated for more than 2h after its

administration, suggesting that the increased 5-HT could be responsible for the potentiation of methylphenidate-induced locomotor activation. In fact, previous administration

of the 5-HT uptake blocker fluoxetine (10mg/kg,i.p.) also potentiated the motor activation induced by methylphenidate. A selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist (GR 55562; 1mg/kg), but not a 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist (ritanserin;2mg/kg,i.p.), counteracted the effects of methamphetamine and fluoxetine on the motor activation induced by methylphenidate. Furthermore, a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist (CP94253;1-10mg/kg,i.p.) strongly and dose-dependently potentiated methylphenidate-induced locomotor activation. The 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated modulation of methylphenidate-induced locomotor activation in rat could have implications for the treatment of ADHD.”
“Neural mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects Volasertib supplier of nicotine and other

drugs have been widely studied and are known to involve the ventral striatum, which is part of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. In contrast, mechanisms of nicotine withdrawal have received less attention although subjective withdrawal likely contributes to the difficulty of quitting. The goal of this study was to determine PJ34 HCl if nicotine withdrawal was associated with alterations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ventral striatum. Twelve smokers, moderately dependent on nicotine, underwent MR dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging at baseline, after overnight withdrawal from nicotine, and after nicotine replacement. DSC images were used to calculate CBF in three regions of interest: ventral striatum, thalamus, and medial frontal cortex. Subjective withdrawal symptoms were measured at each time point. In spite of significant subjective withdrawal symptoms, there was no main effect of withdrawal on CBF in the three regions. However, there was a significant correlation between the increase in withdrawal symptoms and a reduction in thalamic CBF. In contrast to withdrawal, nicotine replacement significantly increased CBF in ventral striatum. Our findings are consistent with the known role of ventral striatum in drug reward.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Putative measu

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Putative measures of mirror neuron activity suggest that mirror neurons respond preferentially to biological motion, but it remains unclear whether enhanced cortical activity occurs during the observation of any behaviour, or whether that behaviour needs to be associated with a particular object or goal. Forty-three healthy adults completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment Defactinib ic50 that assessed corticospinal excitability while viewing intransitive and transitive hand gestures (compared with the presentation

of a static hand). Visual presentations were designed to control for motoric and stimulus properties. A significant increase in corticospinal excitability (putatively reflecting mirror neuron activation) was seen only during the observation of transitive behaviour. These findings are consistent with the notion that human hand-related mirror neurons

are sensitive to object- and goal-directed behaviour, rather than biological motion per se. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To identify the most temperature-sensitive steps in the energy production pathways, we measured the selleck kinase inhibitor thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), as well as that of the individual steps in this process in rat heart mitochondria. OXPHOS Measured in the presence of pyruvate+malate as Substrates have an unusually high thermal sensitivity between 5 and 15 degrees C. Furthermore, the thermal sensitivity of OXPHOS correlates with the thermal sensitivity of pyruvate Cobimetinib mw dehydrogenase between 5 and 35 degrees C. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a potential control point for pyruvate-supported mitochondrial respiration below physiological temperature in rat heart. (C)

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Prismatic adaptation is increasingly recognised as an effective procedure for rehabilitating symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect – producing relatively long-lasting improvements on a variety of spatial attention tasks. The mechanisms by which the aftereffects of adaptation change neglect patients’ performance on these tasks remain controversial. It is not clear, for example, whether adaptation directly influences the pathological ipsilesional attention bias that underlies neglect, or whether it simply changes exploratory motor behaviour. Here we used visual and auditory versions of a target detection task with a secondary task at fixation. Under these conditions, patients with neglect demonstrated a spatial gradient in their ability to orient to the brief, peripheral visual or auditory targets. Following prism adaptation, we found that overall performance on both the auditory and visual task improved, however, most patients in our sample did not show changes in their visual or auditory spatial gradient of attention, despite adequate aftereffects of adaptation and significant improvement in neglect on visual cancellation.

Signal processing was performed on raw spectra and peak data were

Signal processing was performed on raw spectra and peak data were normalized using four methods. Feature selection was performed using Bayesian Network Analysis and a classifier was tested on withheld data. Identification of candidate biomarkers was pursued.

Results: Integrated peak intensities were resolved over full spectra. Normalization using local noise values was superior to global methods in reducing peak correlations, reducing replicate variability

and improving feature selection stability. For the leukemia data set, potential disease biomarkers were detected and were found to be predictive for withheld data. Preliminary AZD0156 research buy assignments of protein IDs were consistent with published results and LC-MS/MS identification. No prostate-specific-antigen-independent biomarkers were detected in BMS-777607 manufacturer the prostate cancer data set.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Signal processing,

local signal-to-noise (SNR) normalization and Bayesian Network Analysis feature selection facilitate robust detection and identification of biomarker proteins in broad-mass-range clinical TOF-MS data.”
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to use on-tissue reduction followed by MALDI-MS imaging (MSI) to identify an m/z 5812.85 peak, which is over-expressed in healthy human pancreatic tissue compared with type one Diabetes (T1D) tissue.

Experimental design: A major constraint of MALDI-MSI is identification of compounds with m/z >= 4000. On-tissue reduction using tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) breaks the inter-domain disulphide bonds generating low-molecular-weight peptides amenable to direct MS/MS analysis. Pancreatic tissues from healthy (n=4) and diabetic subjects

(n=4) were profiled by MALDI-MSI with/without reduction.

Results: On-tissue reduction resulted in the loss of the over-expressed 5812.85 m/z peak and the simultaneous Bupivacaine appearance of a 3430.664 m/z peak in healthy tissues. The latter peak presumably derived from the 5812.85 m/z peak was identified as the insulin B chain by MS/MS. MALDI-MSI images show that both the 5812.85 insulin peak before reduction and the 3430.664 peak after reduction co-localized with the healthy pancreatic islets.

Conclusion and clinical relevance: On-tissue reduction followed by MALDI-MSI resulted in the identification of insulin and localization of pancreatic islets of langerhans. The approach will be useful in the future identification of novel therapeutic molecular targets to beta-cells lost during type one diabetes.

HSYA (2 5-10 mg/kg) was injected at 1 h after ischemia onset Oth

HSYA (2.5-10 mg/kg) was injected at 1 h after ischemia onset. Other groups received HSYA (10 mg/kg) treatment at 3-9 h after onset. Infarct volume, brain edema, and neurological score were evaluated

8-Bromo-cAMP at 24 h after ischemia. Nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, as well as NO level (nitrate/nitrite) in ischemic cortex was examined within 24 h after ischemia. The ability of HSYA to scavenge peroxynitrite was evaluated in vitro.

Infarct volume was significantly decreased by HSYA (P < 0.05), with a therapeutic window of 3 h after ischemia at dose of 10 mg/kg. HSYA treatment also reduced brain edema and improved neurological score (P < 0.05). Nitrotyrosine formation was dose- and time-dependently inhibited by HSYA. The time window of HSYA in decreasing protein tyrosine nitration paralleled its action in infarct volume. HSYA also greatly reduced iNOS expression and NO content at 24 h after ischemia, suggesting prevention of peroxynitrite generation from iNOS. In vitro, HSYA blocked authentic peroxynitrite-induced tyrosine nitration in bovine serum albumin and primary cortical neurons.

Collectively, our results indicated that post-ischemic HSYA treatment attenuates brain ischemic injury which is at least partially due to reducing nitrotyrosine formation, possibly by the combined mechanism of its peroxynitrite scavenging

ability and its reduction in iNOS production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the field of depression, inflammation-associated depression stands up as an exception since its causal factors are obvious and it is easy S63845 to mimic

in an animal model. In addition, quasi-experimental studies can be carried out in patients who are treated chronically with recombinant cytokines for a medical condition since these patients can be studied longitudinally before, during and after stimulation of the immune system. These clinical studies have revealed that depression is a late phenomenon that develops over a background of early appearing sickness. Incorporation of this feature in animal models of inflammation-associated depression has allowed the demonstration that alterations of brain serotoninergic neurotransmission Bambuterol HCl do not play a major role in the pathogenesis. This is in contrast to the activation of the tryptotphan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase that generates potentially neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites such as 3-hydroxy kynurenine and quinolinic acid. Although the relative importance of peripherally versus centrally produced kynurenine and the cellular source of production of this compound remain to be determined, these findings provide new targets for the treatment of inflammation-associated depression that could be extended to other psychiatric conditions mediated by activation of neuroimmune mechanisms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

We

We ASP2215 investigated the entry mechanism of several strains of EIAV and found that both macrophage-tropic and tissue culture-adapted strains utilize clathrin-coated pits for entry. In contrast, a superinfecting strain of EIAV, EIA(vMA-1c), utilizes two mechanisms of entry. In cells such as ED cells that EIAV(vMA-1c) is able to superinfect, viral entry is pH independent and appears to be mediated by plasma membrane fusion, whereas in cells where no detectable superinfection occurs, EIAV(vMA-1c) entry that is low-pH dependent occurs through clathrin-coated pits in a manner similar to wild-type virus. Regardless of the mechanism of entry being utilized, the internalization kinetics

of EIAV is rapid with 50% of cell-associated virions internalizing within 60 to 90 min. Cathepsin inhibitors did not prevent EIAV entry, suggesting that the low-pH step required MK-0518 by wild-type EIAV is not required to activate cellular cathepsins.”
“Although fragrances have long been known to influence stress-induced psychosomatic disorders, the neurophysiological mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of fragrance on the relation between the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin and the stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, which regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Employing near infrared spectroscopy, we measured hemoglobin concentration changes in the bilateral PFC during a mental arithmetic

task in normal adults (n = 31), and evaluated asymmetry of the PFC activity in terms of the laterality index (i.e., [(right-left)/(right+left)]) of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes (LI-oxyHb). We measured the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin before the task performance. There was a significant positive correlation between the LI-oxyHb and the level of sebum secretion (r = +0.44, p = 0.01). We selected the subjects who exhibited high levels of sebum secretion

and right-dominant PFC activity for the study on the fragrance effect (n = 12). Administration of fragrance for four weeks significantly reduced the level of sebum (p = 0.02) in the fragrance group (n = 6). In addition, the LI-oxyHb decreased significantly from 0.11 +/- 0.07 to -0.10 +/- 0.18 (p = 0.01), indicating that the dominant side of the stress-induced PFC activity Nintedanib solubility dmso changed from the right to left side. In contrast, neither LI-oxyHb nor the levels of sebum secretion changed significantly in the control group (n = 6). These results suggest that administration of fragrance reduced the level of sebum secretion by modulating the stress-induced PFC activity. The PFC may be involved in the neurophysiological mechanism of fragrance effects on systemic response to mental stress. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“During productive infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL44 transcription initiates at three distinct start sites that are differentially regulated.

However, univariate analysis showed that neutrophil count (OR, 3

However, univariate analysis showed that neutrophil count (OR, 3.48; 95% Cl, 1.23-9.85) but not hs-CRT was associated with echolucent carotid plaques. At multivariate analysis, neutrophil count exceeding the median remained associated with echolucent carotid plaques (OR, 5.71; 95% CI, 1.37-23.85), whereas the association between femoral and carotid echolucency was attenuated (Oft, 3.75; 95% CI, 0.98-4.43).

Conclusions. In PAD, the presence of echolucent femoral plaques is associated with a greater prevalence of echolucent

carotid plaques, probably as a consequence of a more pronounced inflammatory profile. This confirms and extends the finding that plaque echolucency is a multivessel phenomenon. Prospective

studies are needed to selleck products assess whether HDAC inhibitor carotid screening in PAD patients might contribute to improving clinical decision-making. (J Vasc Surg 2009;49:346-51.)”
“The aim of the present study is to investigate whether immunoreactive (1) calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) content is decreased in plasma and mesenteric arteries (resistance arteries) in middle-aged rats and if so, whether sex steroid hormones enhance I-CGRP in middle-aged female rats. We also examined whether vascular CGRP receptor components, calcitonin receptor like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP(1)) are elevated by sex steroid hormones treatment in middle-aged female rats. Young adult (3 months old) and middle-aged (10-12 months old) ovariectomized rats were treated subcutaneously with estradiol-17 beta (E(2); 2 mg), Dehydratase progesterone (P(4); 5 mg), E(2) + P(4) (2 mg + 20 mg) or placebo (control). Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analysis were performed to measure I-CGRP content and CGRP receptor components in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), in resistance arteries and in plasma. Immunofluorescent staining

methods were employed to determine cellular localization of CRLR, RAMP(1) in resistance arteries. Our data demonstrated that I-CGRP content was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the plasma and resistance arteries of middle-aged female rats compared to young controls. Both RAMP(1) and CRLR were concentrated in vascular endothelium and the underlying smooth muscle cells. RAMP(1) but not CRLR appeared to be decreased in middle-aged rat vasculature. Chronic perfusion of sex steroid hormones to ovariectomized rats: (1) significantly (p<0.05) elevated I-CGRP in the DRG and in the plasma, and (2) significantly elevated RAMP(1) (p<0.05) but did not alter CRLR in resistance arteries. These data suggest that female sex steroid treatment enhances I-CGRP and its receptors, and thus regulate the blood pressure in aged female rats. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a 24-month period identified p

METHODS: A retrospective review of a 24-month period identified patients undergoing minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. The O-arm was introduced in the middle of this period and was used for all subsequent patients. Accuracy of screw placement was assessed by examination of axial computed tomography or O-arm scans.

RESULTS: The fluoroscopy group included 141 screws in 42 patients, and the O-arm group included 205 screws in 52 PSI-7977 nmr patients. The perforation rate was 12.8% in the fluoroscopy group and 3% in the O-arm group (P < .001). Single-level O-arm procedures took a mean 200 (153-241) minutes, whereas fluoroscopy took 221 (178-302) minutes (P < .03).

CONCLUSION: Percutaneous pedicle screw placement

with the O-arm Multidimensional Intraoperative ASP2215 research buy Imaging System is a safe and effective technique and provided improved overall accuracy and reduced operative time compared with conventional fluoroscopic techniques.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and

clinical manifestations of spinal cord ischernia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).

Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed for all patients undergoing TEVAR at a single academic institution between July 2002 and June 2010. Preoperative demographics, procedure-related variables, and clinical details related to SCI were examined. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for the development of SCI.

Results: Of the 424 patients who underwent TEVAR during the study period, 12 patients (2.8%) developed SCI. Mean age of this cohort with SCI was 69.6 years (range, 44-84 years), and 7 were women. One-half of these patients had prior open or endovascular aortic repair. Indication for surgery was either degenerative aneurysm (n = 8) or dissection (n = 4). Six TEVARs were performed electively, with the remaining done either urgently or emergently due to contained rupture (n = 2), dissection with malperfusion (n = 2), or severe back pain SPTLC1 (n = 2). All 12 patients underwent extent C endovascular coverage. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated

chronic renal insufficiency to be independently associated with SCI (odds ratio [OR], 4.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-16.6; P = .029). Onset of SCI occurred at a median of 10.6 hours (range, 0-229 hours) postprocedure and was delayed in 83% (n = 10) of patients. Clinical manifestations of SCI included lower extremity paraparesis in 9 patients and paraplegia in 3 patients. At SCI onset, average mean arterial pressure (MAP) and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure was 77 mm Hg and 10 mm Hg, respectively. Therapeutic interventions increased blood pressure to a significantly higher average MAP of 99 nun Hg (P = .001) and decreased lumbar CSF pressure to a mean of 7 mm Hg (P = .30) at the time of neurologic recovery. Thirty-day mortality was 8% (1 of 12 patients).

BNST vasopressin neurons

also express galanin Although g

BNST vasopressin neurons

also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating PF-562271 datasheet sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian hamster BNST neurons respond to circulating sex steroids and their seasonal variations as observed in other rodent species. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published Selisistat nmr by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be genetically modified with viral vectors and hold promise as a cell source for regenerative medicine, yet how hMSCs respond to viral vector transduction remains poorly understood, leaving the safety concerns unaddressed. Here, we explored the responses of hMSCs against an emerging DNA viral vector, baculovirus (BV), and discovered that BV transduction perturbed the transcription of 816 genes associated with five signaling

pathways. Surprisingly, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), a receptor that generally recognizes double-stranded RNA, was apparently upregulated by BV transduction, as confirmed by microarray,

PCR array, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cytokine array data showed that BV transduction triggered robust secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 but not of other inflammatory Acetophenone cytokines and beta interferon (IFN-beta). BV transduction activated the signaling molecules (e.g., Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta, NF-kappa B, and IFN regulatory factor 3) downstream of TLR3, while silencing the TLR3 gene with small interfering RNA considerably abolished cytokine expression and promoted cell migration. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that a DNA viral vector can activate the TLR3 pathway in hMSCs and lead to a cytokine expression profile distinct from that in immune cells. These findings underscore the importance of evaluating whether the TLR3 signaling cascade plays roles in the immune response provoked by other DNA vectors (e. g., adenovirus). Nonetheless, BV transduction barely disturbed surface marker expression and induced only transient and mild cytokine responses, thereby easing the safety concerns of using BV for hMSCs engineering.”
“The “”Spanish influenza”" of 1918 claimed an unprecedented number of lives, yet the determinants of virulence for this virus are still not fully understood.

All rights reserved “
“During the past 10 years, much attent

All rights reserved.”
“During the past 10 years, much attention has been focused towards elucidating the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in central nervous system (CNS) innate immunity. TLR signaling triggers the transcriptional activation of pro-interleukin-1 beta (pro-IL-1 beta) and pro-IL-18 that are CH5183284 processed into their active forms by the inflammasome. Recent studies have demonstrated inflammasome involvement during CNS infection, autoimmune disease,

and injury. This review will address inflammasome actions within the CNS and how cooperation between TLR and inflammasome signaling may influence disease outcome. In addition, the concept of alternative inflammasome functions independent of IL-1 and IL-18 processing are considered in the context of CNS disease.”
“Rice is a critically important food crop plant on our planet. It is also an excellent model plant for cereal crops, and now in position to serve as a reference plant for biofuel production. Proteomics study of rice therefore is crucial to better understand “”rice”" as a whole. Rice proteomics has moved Alisertib order well beyond the initial proteome analysis in the early to late 1990s. Since the year 2000, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in rice during growth and development and against

a wide variety of environmental factors. These proteomic investigations have established the high-resolution 2-D reference gels of rice tissues, organs, and organelle under normal and adverse (stressed) conditions by optimizing PLEKHO1 suitable, reproducible systems for gel, and MS-based proteomic techniques, which “”rejuvenated”"

the rice proteome field. This constituted the “”phase I”" in rice proteomics, and resulted in rice being labeled as the “”cornerstone”" of cereal food crop proteomes. Now, we are in position to state that rice proteomics today marks the “”beginning of phase IP. This is due to the fact that rice researchers are capable of digging deeper into the rice proteome, mapping PTMs (in particular reversible protein phosphorylation), performing inter- and intra-species comparisons, integrating proteomics data with other “”omic”" technologies-generated data, and probing the functional aspect of individual proteins. These advancements and their impact on the future of rice proteomics are the focus of this review.”
“Two opposing hypotheses on the homology of the avian brain suggest that the dorsal ventricular ridge of birds is comparable in certain respects either to the neocortex or to the claustroamygdalar complex of mammals. To help resolve this issue, we examined in adult chicken brains the gene expression of ROR beta mRNA, a selective marker for layer IV of mammalian neocortex. ROR beta mRNA was expressed in neurons of the chicken’s visual entopallium and auditory field 12, but not in other regions of the nidopallium, hyperpallium, mesopallium or arcopallium.