The results varied by cancer type and medication exposure. There was no association between glycemic control and breast or colon cancer; however, prostate cancer risk was significantly higher with better glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c7.0%). Insulin use was associated LY2157299 mw with increased colon cancer
incidence in women, but not with colon cancer in men or breast or prostate cancer risk. Metformin exposure was associated with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence, but had no association with colon cancer risk. Sulfonylurea exposure was not associated with risk of any type of cancer. The data reported here support hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, as a major diabetes-related factor associated with increased risk of breast
and colon cancer. In contrast, hyperglycemia appears to be protective in the case of prostate cancer. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Introduction: Several presentations of neurologic complications p38 MAPK pathway caused by JC virus (JCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have been described and need to be distinguished from the “”classic”" form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the spectrum and frequency of presentations of JCV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases; 2) identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality of patients with JCV-associated CNS disease; and Citarinostat 3) to estimate the overall mortality of this population.
Material and methods: This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients admitted consecutively for JCV-associated CNS diseases in a referral teaching center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2002
to 2007. All patients with laboratory confirmed JCV-associated CNS diseases were included using the following criteria: compatible clinical and radiological features associated with the presence of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML; 2) inflammatory PML; and 3) JC virus granule cell neuronopathy (GCN).
Results: We included 47 cases. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML: 42 (89%); 2) inflammatory PML: three (6%); and 3) JC virus GCN: four (9%). Nosocomial pneumonia (p = 0.003), previous diagnosis of HIV infection (p = 0.03), and imaging showing cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement (p = 0.02) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Overall mortality during hospitalization was 34%.
Conclusions: Novel presentations of JCV-associated CNS diseases were observed in our setting; nosocomial pneumonia, previous diagnosis of HIV infection, and cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement were associated with in-hospital mortality; and overall mortality was high. (C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.