Using Maxwell’s equations we evaluate the field components of the mode in the evacuated waveguide and then obtain coupled differential equations for the field components of the mode in the plasma filled waveguide, where the plasma effect enters in terms of its dielectric constant.
These equations are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method for the electric field amplitude of the microwave and its wavelength under the effect of plasma density, waveguide width, and microwave frequency. All the investigations are carried out for different initial plasma density profiles, namely homogeneous density, linear density with gradient in the propagation direction and the density with Gaussian profile along the waveguide width. The structure of the JQ-EZ-05 perturbed density due to the ponderomotive force exerted by the mode is also investigated under the effect of microwave parameters and waveguide width. Numerical studies are conducted for the isothermal plasma in the waveguide. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3452335]“
“Background: The effect of breastfeeding on growth in HIV-exposed infants is not well described.
Objective: The objective
was to evaluate the effect of early breastfeeding cessation on growth.
Design: In a trial conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, HIV-infected mothers were randomly assigned to exclusive breastfeeding for 4 mo followed by rapid selleck compound weaning to replacement foods or exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo followed by introduction of complementary foods and continued breastfeeding for a duration of the mother’s choice. Weight-for-age z score (WAZ), length-for-age z score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z score (WLZ) and the self-reported breastfeeding
practices of 593 HIV-uninfected singletons were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for confounders.
Results: WAZ scores declined precipitously between 4.5 and 15 mo. The decline was slower in the breastfed infants. At 9, 12, and 15 mo, mean WAZs were, Bromosporine respectively, -0.74, -0.92, and -1.06 in infants who were reportedly breastfed and were -1.07, -1.20, and -1.31 in the weaned infants (P = 0.003, 0.007, and 0.02, respectively). No differences were observed past 15 mo. Breastfeeding practice was not associated with LAZ, which declined from -0.98 to -2.24 from 1 to 24 mo. After adjustment for birth weight, maternal viral load, body mass index, education, season, and marital and socioeconomic status, not breastfeeding was associated with a 0.28 decline in WAZ between 4.5 and 15 mo (P < 0.0001). During the rainy season, not breastfeeding was associated with a larger WAZ decline (0.33) than during the dry season (0.22; P for interaction = 0.02).
Conclusions: Early growth is compromised in uninfected children born to HIV-infected Zambian mothers. Continued breastfeeding partially mitigates this effect through 15 mo.