1 and B7.2, thereby preventing CD28 from binding to B7 . The brilliant results of a phase 1 clinical trial using a fully humanized antagonistic CTLA4 monoclonal antibody highlight the potential immunotherapeutic value of antibody-based therapies for cancer . Future challenges and progresses The introduction in the clinical practice of two highly efficacious preventive vaccines [84, 85] (Gardasil MSD, and Cervaix GSK) against HPV opens a new scenario suggesting a role of this vaccination in the preventive therapy of the subset of HNSCC check details linked to HPV infection, hypothesising a preventive immunological approach for other tumours. Trials to evaluate prevention require SN-38 greater numbers of participants,
longer follow-up to evaluate meaningful endpoints, and raise different ethical issues than therapeutic studies. However it is predictable that not all tumours Y27632 can beneficiate of this preventive approach, stressing the need for cancer immunotherapies. Cancer vaccines are a powerful example how is wrong to approach to scientific problems by optimism or pessimism about the initial results. The degree of optimism or pessimism associated with researches into therapeutic cancer vaccines depends largely upon definitions of response to treatment. If you use objective
complete response and partial response to cancer vaccines as indicated by World Health Organization (WHO)  the pessimism is compulsory; if you Aspartate consider the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST)  cautious optimism or less pessimism is conceivable, whereas if less objective so-called “”soft”"
criteria are employed (e.g. minor response, stable disease, clinical benefit) are employed the optimism about immunotherapy predominates. Data of phase I-II trials with these large arrays of therapeutic vaccines indicate their efficacy in elicit some immunological response, and only few phase III trials reported success in the therapy having the RECIST as end point. In a recent reviews for all type of tumours a percentage of only 2.9% of clinical response to therapeutic vaccines was reported [88, 89]. However, results from cancer immunotherapy must be viewed in the context of the patient populations included in trials. Indeed, response rates will be low if the enrolled patients have metastatic disease with failure after standard therapies . Therefore the pessimistic and simply conclusion that cancer vaccines have been tested and failed may be wrong. Only in relative short time the knowledge on immunotolerance and tools to overcome it have been achieved, emphasizing the need for profound changes in the application of immunotherapy. Firstly, investigators have to concentrate their efforts in: Generating antitumour CD4+ cells that enhance antitumour reactions and sustain the activation and survival of CD8+ cells. Activating innate immunity by new toll-like  receptor agonists.