Using Maxwell’s equations we evaluate the field components of the

Using Maxwell’s equations we evaluate the field components of the mode in the evacuated waveguide and then obtain coupled differential equations for the field components of the mode in the plasma filled waveguide, where the plasma effect enters in terms of its dielectric constant.

These equations are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method for the electric field amplitude of the microwave and its wavelength under the effect of plasma density, waveguide width, and microwave frequency. All the investigations are carried out for different initial plasma density profiles, namely homogeneous density, linear density with gradient in the propagation direction and the density with Gaussian profile along the waveguide width. The structure of the JQ-EZ-05 perturbed density due to the ponderomotive force exerted by the mode is also investigated under the effect of microwave parameters and waveguide width. Numerical studies are conducted for the isothermal plasma in the waveguide. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3452335]“
“Background: The effect of breastfeeding on growth in HIV-exposed infants is not well described.

Objective: The objective

was to evaluate the effect of early breastfeeding cessation on growth.

Design: In a trial conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, HIV-infected mothers were randomly assigned to exclusive breastfeeding for 4 mo followed by rapid selleck compound weaning to replacement foods or exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo followed by introduction of complementary foods and continued breastfeeding for a duration of the mother’s choice. Weight-for-age z score (WAZ), length-for-age z score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z score (WLZ) and the self-reported breastfeeding

practices of 593 HIV-uninfected singletons were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for confounders.

Results: WAZ scores declined precipitously between 4.5 and 15 mo. The decline was slower in the breastfed infants. At 9, 12, and 15 mo, mean WAZs were, Bromosporine respectively, -0.74, -0.92, and -1.06 in infants who were reportedly breastfed and were -1.07, -1.20, and -1.31 in the weaned infants (P = 0.003, 0.007, and 0.02, respectively). No differences were observed past 15 mo. Breastfeeding practice was not associated with LAZ, which declined from -0.98 to -2.24 from 1 to 24 mo. After adjustment for birth weight, maternal viral load, body mass index, education, season, and marital and socioeconomic status, not breastfeeding was associated with a 0.28 decline in WAZ between 4.5 and 15 mo (P < 0.0001). During the rainy season, not breastfeeding was associated with a larger WAZ decline (0.33) than during the dry season (0.22; P for interaction = 0.02).

Conclusions: Early growth is compromised in uninfected children born to HIV-infected Zambian mothers. Continued breastfeeding partially mitigates this effect through 15 mo.

However, these analyses evaluated

outcomes prior to chang

However, these analyses evaluated

outcomes prior to changes in utilization patterns of concomitant immunosuppression. Recent prospective trials have indicated similar outcomes among patients treated with MMF and AZA. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes in a broad group of patients in the more recent era. We evaluated adult solitary renal transplant recipients from 1998 to 2006 with the national SRTR database. Primary outcomes were time to patient death and graft loss, complications and renal function. Models were adjusted for potential confounding factors, propensity scores and stratified between higher/lower risk transplants and concomitant Metabolism inhibitor immunosuppression. Adjusted models indicated a modest risk among AZA patients for graft loss (AHR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.20); however, this was not apparent among AZA patients

also treated with tacrolimus (AHR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.11]. One-year acute rejection rates were reduced for patients on MMF versus AZA (10 vs. 13%, p < 0.01); there were no statistically significant differences of malignancies, renal function or BK virus at 1 year. The primary findings suggest the association of MMF with improved outcomes may not be apparent in patients also receiving tacrolimus.”
“Here we present the first report of a gangliocytic AZD1080 paraganglioma arising in a tailgut cyst; it occurred in a 56-year-old man. Tailgut cysts are uncommon congenital hamartomatous lesions that arise in the retrorectal presacral space in infants or adults. Benign or malignant tumors associated with tailgut cysts are rarely described; the most common tumors

are adenocarcinomas and carcinoid tumors. A gangliocytic paraganglioma is a rare benign tumor that occurs nearly exclusively in the second portion of the duodenum. Rare cases have been reported at other locations, but SYN-117 Metabolism inhibitor a tailgut cyst has never been described. In our case, a resected 3.9 x 3.3 x 3 cm mass was composed predominantly of a solid yellow white neuroendocrine tumor within the area of a tailgut cyst. The neuroendocrine component of this tumor was different from previously described carcinoid tumors with respect to the histologic findings of neural differentiation as well as the intermixed typical gangliocytic features highlighted by immunohistochemical stains for S-100 protein and neurofilament.

Each session was summarized as the starting point for the followi

Each session was summarized as the starting point for the following one. The topics discussed were the platform structure and its logo.

Results: For the platform, the following requirements were defined: teaching should be extensive and tailored to different levels of knowledge; all available teaching tools (tutorials, demonstrations, recorded and written materials) should be used; CRM1 inhibitor films enhance emotional participation and can be used to reduce fears; the contents should include general information on chronic kidney disease, details of all types of renal replacement therapy (RRT) (how and why), dialysis accidents, blood and imaging tests, laws

and reimbursements, direct experiences and history of RRT. Remote monitoring and visual interactions are important for reassurance about HHD and should be provided. The requirements for the logo were that it be innovative, related SBC-115076 Others inhibitor to daily life, representative of a holistic approach and convey

happiness. The logo “”Hom-e-hem”" was created, playing on the assonance between the religious term Om and the word home, with the e of electronic linking it with hem, short for hemodialysis.

Conclusion: Brainstorming sessions can be used to design patient-tailored educational interventions. The, key message, “”self-care is a bridge from illness back I, to life,”" may apply to a wider context.”
“P>Background:

Allowing spontaneous respiration after cardiac surgery eliminates complications related to mechanical ventilation and optimizes cardiopulmonary interaction. Epidural analgesia has been proposed to promote early extubation after cardiac surgery.

Objective:

To identify the characteristics of patients with epidural analgesia and safety profiles with respect to the timing of extubation Ricolinostat following cardiac surgery.

Design and method:

A

retrospective chart review of patients who underwent cardiac surgery during a 5-year period. Demographic, procedural, and perioperative variables were analyzed to investigate factors that affect the timing of extubation.

Results:

A total of 750 records were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 12 months, and 52% were infants (< 1 year). Seventy-five percent of the patients utilized cardiopulmonary bypass. The study population was classified into three groups according to the timing of extubation: 66% were extubated in the operating room or upon arrival at the PICU (Immediate), 15% were extubated within 24 h (mean, 10.8 h; 95% CI, 9.0-12.6) (Early), and 19% were extubated after 24 h (Delayed). For the Immediate and Early groups, multivariate logistic regression identified young age, increased cross-clamp time, and inotrope score as independent risk factors for the need for mechanical ventilation. Postextubation respiratory acidosis (mean P(a)CO(2), 50 mmHg; 95% CI, 49-51) was well tolerated by all patients. There were no neurologic complications related to the epidural technique.

In 94% of the patients, the index leg had distal occlusive diseas

In 94% of the patients, the index leg had distal occlusive disease affecting arteries below the knee. Statins were prescribed for 54% of the patients, and anti-platelet drugs for 80%. Variation in region of origin resulted in only minor demographic imbalance. Similarly, while diabetic status was associated with a frequent history of coronary artery disease, it had little impact on limb haemodynamics and vascular lesions.

Conclusions: Clinical characteristics and vascular anatomy of CLI patients with ischaemic skin lesions who were unsuitable

for revascularisation therapy show little variations by region of origin and diabetic status. The findings from this large CLI cohort will contribute to our understanding of this disease process.

This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00566657. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Vorinostat the levels of glycemic control on the frequency of clinical complications following invasive dental treatments in type 2 diabetic patients and suggest appropriate levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated www.selleckchem.com/screening/pfizer-licensed-library.html hemoglobin considered to be safe to avoid these complications.

METHOD: Type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic

patients were selected and divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 13 type 2 diabetic patients with adequate glycemic control (fasting blood glucose levels <140 mg/dl and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels <7%). Group II consisted of 15 type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycemic control (fasting blood glucose levels > 140 mg/dl and HbA1c

LXH254 solubility dmso levels >7%). Group III consisted of 18 non-diabetic patients (no symptoms and fasting blood glucose levels < 100 mg/dl). The levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated HbA1c, and fingerstick capillary glycemia were evaluated in diabetic patients prior to performing dental procedures. Seven days after the dental procedure, the frequency of clinical complications (surgery site infections and systemic infections) was examined and compared between the three study groups. In addition, correlations between the occurrence of these outcomes and the glycemic control of diabetes mellitus were evaluated.

RESULTS: The frequency of clinical outcomes was low (4/43; 8.6%), and no significant differences between the outcome frequencies of the various study groups were observed (p>0.05). However, a significant association was observed between clinical complications and dental extractions (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Because of the low frequency of clinical outcomes, it was not possible to determine whether fasting blood glucose or glycated HbA1c levels are important for these clinical outcomes.”
“Contents In Europe, housing conditions of sows are currently changing, related with a larger emphasis on pig welfare.

6% had a high medical

6% had a high medical selleck risk (hospitalisation). Fewer patients were in a low CURB65-A class (I) than a low CURB65 class (0,1) (17.4% vs. 46.3%, p <0.001). Mean length of hospitalisation was 9.8 days including 3.6 days after reaching medical stability. In 60.3% of patients, hospitalisation was prolonged after medical stability mainly for medical reasons.

CONCLUSIONS: Current rates of hospitalisation are high in patients with LRTI and length of stay frequently extended beyond time of medical

stabilization. The lower proportion of patients reclassified as low risk by adding ProADM to the CURB65 score might improve confidence in the triage algorithm.”
“The magnetic and transport properties of Fe-Pd/Rh(Ir)/Fe-Pd heterostructures have been analyzed by means of a first principles Green’s technique for surfaces and interfaces, implemented within tight-binding linear muffin-tin method. The effects of variable thicknesses both for spacers and magnetic layers on the magnetic and transport properties were analyzed. The spin-dependent transport properties are determined in the ballistic limit by means of linear response of Kubo approach implemented within tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital formalism. A correlation between the interlayer exchange coupling, conductances, giant

magnetoresistances and magnetic properties are shown. The magnetic Selleckchem PF-03084014 disorder, simulating the effect of temperature on the interlayer exchange coupling and transport properties, are also discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.

[doi:10.1063/1.3561498]“
“Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase (RCA) in the thylakoid membrane YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 (TM) has been shown to play a role in protection and regulation of photosynthesis under moderate heat stress. However, the physiological significance of RCA bound to the TM (TM-RCA) without heat stress remains unknown. In this study, it is first shown, using experiments in vivo, that the TM-RCA varies in rice leaves at different development stages, under different environmental conditions, and in a rice mutant. Furthermore, it is shown that the amount of TM-RCA always increased when the Rubisco activation state and the pH gradient across the TM (delta pH) decreased. It was then demonstrated in vitro that the RCA bound dynamically to TM and the amount of TM-RCA increased during Rubisco activation. A high level of ATP and a high pH value promoted the dissociation of RCA from the TM. Both the RCA association with and dissociation from the TM showed conformational changes related to the ATP level or pH as indicated by the changes in fluorescence intensity of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (ANS) binding to RCA. These results suggest that the reversible association of RCA with the TM is ATP and pH (or delta pH) dependent; it might be involved in the RCA activation of Rubisco, in addition to the previously discovered role in the protection and regulation of photosynthesis under heat stress.

Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harv

Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harvey-Bradshaw index, laboratory tests, colonoscopy and small, bowel radiology when appropriate.

Results: The perioperative mortality was nit. Early postoperative complications were: wound infection (N=4), anastomotic teak (N=1), reoperated, nipple ischemia (N=1) reoperated, enterocutaneous fistula click here (N=1). Clinical recurrence in the neoterminal ileum was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 11%, 20%, 23% and 24%. Eleven patients (19%) were reoperated for recurrence in the neoterminal ileum

after median 96 months follow-up. The cumulative reoperation rate was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 4%, 13%, 13% and 16%, respectively.

Conclusion: The low clinical and surgical recurrence rate in the neoterminal ileum may suggest a protective effect of the neosphincter on postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease. This result should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. (c) 2009 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that converts adenosines to inosines in both coding and noncoding RNA transcripts. It is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine NCT-501 deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which exist throughout the body but are most prevalent in the central nervous system. Inosines exhibit properties that are most similar to those

of guanosines. As a result, ADAR-mediated editing can post-transcriptionally alter codons, introduce or remove splice sites, or affect the base pairing of the RNA molecule with itself

or with other RNAs. A-to-I editing is a mechanism that regulates and diversifies the transcriptome, but the full biological significance of ADARs is not understood. ADARs are highly conserved EPZ-6438 across vertebrates and are essential for normal development in mammals. Aberrant ADAR activity has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, viral infections and autoimmune disorders. ADARs have been shown to contribute to disease pathologies by editing of glutamate receptors, editing of serotonin receptors, mutations in ADAR genes, and by other mechanisms, including recently identified regulatory roles in microRNA processing. Advances in research into many of these diseases may depend on an improved understanding of the biological functions of ADARs. Here, we review recent studies investigating connections between ADAR-mediated RNA editing and human diseases.”
“OBJECTIVE: To determine whether avoiding intra-abdominal irrigation at cesarean delivery will decrease rates of intraoperative and postoperative gastrointestinal disturbance without increasing postoperative morbidity.

METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing cesarean delivery. Patients were randomized to irrigation after closure of the hysterotomy compared with no irrigation.

The surgery was performed in 211 obese between May 1999 and Decem

The surgery was performed in 211 obese between May 1999 and December 2000. This prospective study evaluated excess weight loss (%EWL) and body mass index (BMI) during the period. We considered surgical treatment failure if %EWL was less than 50 %.

We followed 54.9 % of the population (116 patients). Patients’ %EWL was 67.6 +/- 14.9 % 1 year after surgery, 72.6 +/- 14.9 % after 2 years, 69.7 +/- 15.1 % after 5 years, 66.8 +/- 7.6 % after 8 years, and 67.1 +/- 11.9 % after 10 years selleck chemicals postoperatively. Surgical treatment

failure occurred in 16 patients (14.6 %) over 10 years.

B-RYGBP is a good technique to promote and maintain weight loss 10 years after surgery with low failure rate.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of modified electric vacuum aspiration (mEVA) and sharp curettage (SC) for treatment of incomplete abortion.

Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between 1 March 2005 and 15 December 2009. Ninety-four women with incomplete abortion were randomly allocated

into two groups, group A (n = 47) underwent mEVA and group B (n = 47) underwent SC. The procedures were performed using the paracervical signaling pathway block with 20 mL of lidocaine. Successful management and complication were assessed. Successful management was defined as complete uterine evacuation with no need for the second surgical procedure.

Results: There were Q-VD-Oph clinical trial differences in women characteristics between groups. The successful rate of management was 100% for both groups. However, the operative time and estimated blood loss were less in the mEVA group than in the SC group. Severe pain was significantly less prevalent in group A than group B. Suspected endometritis was found in two (4.3%) patients in each group.

Conclusions: The efficacy of mEVA was the

same as that of SC in successful management of incomplete abortion, but pain was experienced more often in the SC group.”
“We examined epidemiological aspects and bacterial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from intensive care unit (ICU) patient samples. During a 10 month period (from June 2006 to March 2007), 812 samples of blood, urine and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from 553 hospitalized patients, in ICU wards, including pediatric surgical, neonatal, adult surgical I, adult surgical II, general pediatrics, neurosurgical I, neurosurgical II, and internal medical, were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics for bacteria isolates was determined by the E-test method. The internal medicine ICU with 28.7% admissions gave the largest contribution. Coagulase negative staphylococci at frequencies of 66.7% and 36.5% and E. coli at 20.9% were the bacteria most frequently isolated from the blood, CSF and urine samples, respectively. Samples taken from patients 20-40 years old were the most frequent (32.2%), while the group of patients over sixty years contributed least (18.5%).

Methods 155 cancer patients who were about to begin their first s

Methods 155 cancer patients who were about to begin their first session of radiotherapy were included. HRQoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess whether there was a violation of the assumption of invariance.

Results A satisfactory single construct (Functioning HRQoL) measurement model was found and two violations of invariance were identified. Irrespective of patients’ Functioning HRQoL,

older patients reported worse physical functioning and patients who had received treatment prior to radiotherapy reported worse emotional functioning than we would otherwise expect.

Conclusions In the present study, accounting for measurement bias lead to a substantial improvement in the overall fit of the model. By SB525334 ignoring the bias, we would have concluded that the model fit was ATR inhibitor unsatisfactory. The findings underline the importance of investigating measurement invariance in scales designed for heterogeneous samples.”
“In this paper, the vacancy-pair diffusion mechanism in cubic materials is revisited with emphasis on the limits of the ratio of the tracer diffusion coefficients to demonstrate the operation of this mechanism. The vacancy-pair mechanism puts very strict upper and lower bounds on this ratio. Extensive high precision Monte Carlo simulation is used to

calculate tracer correlation factor, ratios of tracer diffusivities, and percolation effects (in mixed compounds). The three major cubic lattices-NaCl, CsCl, and zinc blende structures-are analyzed, and correct limits for the ratio of the tracer diffusivities are found to be 5.6, 11.2, and 2.6, respectively. For the case of the CsCl structure correlation factors are redetermined using the matrix method to obtain good agreement with the Monte Carlo results. Self-diffusion

in the compound semiconductors PbSe (NaCl structure) InSb, GaSb, CdTe, and HgCdTe (zinc blende structure) is reanalyzed. It is shown that the vacancy-pair mechanism is unlikely to contribute to self-diffusion in CdTe and HgCdTe but it remains a valid possibility for self-diffusion in PbSe, InSb, and Givinostat supplier GaSb.”
“Deglutition syncope refers to an uncommon cause of neurally mediated syncope induced by swallowing. We briefly review a case of a 66-year-old man who experienced recurrent syncope episodes during ingestion of beverages, mainly water. Our investigations documented several short asymptomatic episodes of asystole and one prolonged complete atrioventricular block of around 15 seconds associated with the syncopal events, during swallowing. Barium x-ray and manometry evaluations revealed only a nonspecific esophageal dysmotility. An underlying sick-sinus syndrome was found on electrophysiologic study. A DDD pacemaker implantation was performed leading to total disappearance of patient’s symptoms.

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute and convalescent microscopic agglutination test titers for Leptospira serovar icterohaemorrhagiae of 1:200 and 1:1600, respectively. The other was a case of infection with Plasmodium vivax that seroconverted to a titer of 1:3200 for Leptospira serovar batavia. Both patients finally improved with cephalosporins and doxycycline after no significant clinical/biochemical improvement with antimalarials stand-alone. It is proposed that febrile patients with hepato-renal dysfunction should be considered possible co-infection of malaria

and leptospirosis.”
“Echinococcus alveolaris (E. alveolaris) (multi-localaris) is a parasitic agent that commonly affects the liver and poses as a solid mass. In contrast to Echnicoccus granulosus, E. alveolaris tends to invade adjacent structures rather than displace this website and compress them. Haematogenous dissemination to other organs such as the lungs, brain, or bone is rare. In this case, we report on a 34-year old woman with a history of liver segmentectomy due to E. alveolaris infestation and the disease selleck screening library disseminated to the lungs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed

multiple opacities and mixed signal intensities in the lungs, mimicking metastatic disease. The biopsy proved that the lesions were a result of metastasis of E. alveolaris.”
“Background: Screening Library Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, is driven by cells with neural stem (NS) cell characteristics. Using derivation methods developed for NS cells, it is possible to expand tumorigenic stem cells continuously in vitro. Although these glioblastoma-derived neural stem (GNS) cells are highly similar to normal NS cells, they harbor mutations typical of gliomas and initiate authentic tumors following orthotopic xenotransplantation. Here, we analyzed GNS and NS cell transcriptomes to identify gene expression alterations underlying the disease phenotype.

Methods: Sensitive measurements of gene expression were

obtained by high-throughput sequencing of transcript tags (Tag-seq) on adherent GNS cell lines from three glioblastoma cases and two normal NS cell lines. Validation by quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 82 differentially expressed genes across a panel of 16 GNS and 6 NS cell lines. The molecular basis and prognostic relevance of expression differences were investigated by genetic characterization of GNS cells and comparison with public data for 867 glioma biopsies.

Results: Transcriptome analysis revealed major differences correlated with glioma histological grade, and identified misregulated genes of known significance in glioblastoma as well as novel candidates, including genes associated with other malignancies or glioma-related pathways.

9% during the second phase, respectively) (+)-Glaucine (12 5 and

9% during the second phase, respectively). (+)-Glaucine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) showed strong activity in three animal models, too. The activity of these compounds was also observed following oral administration in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.”
“Removal and changing an intra-uterine device (IUD)

involves good history taking, a proper examination and appropriate experience in fitting IUDs.

We present a case of a woman who had two insertions of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) which was diagnosed only at hysteroscopy when she presented with the spontaneous expulsion of a vertical stem of one of the devices.

This is a unique case where two LNG-IUS were inserted in error and hence it teaches the clinicians the importance of good training and being aware of the possibility of the missing thread which deserves further investigations especially when such LY3023414 datasheet cases are encountered in a busy general practice.”
“Amniotic fluid (AF) represents heterologous cell types and a specific group of these cells show high growth rate and multipotent characteristics. The aim of the present study was to culture and fully characterize the putative stem cell population isolated from caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell population could be successfully isolated from the caprine amniotic fluid. In vitro expanded caprine amniotic fluid derived

mesenchymal AC220 concentration stem cells (cAF-MSCs) showed high proliferation ratio with a doubling time of 33.1 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. Relative transcript abundance of CD-73, CD-90 and CD-105 surface markers were analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR and their respective proteins were localized through immunocytochemistry, however cAF-MSCs were found negative for haematopoietic marker CD-34. When exposed to corresponding induction condition, cAF-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages

which was confirmed through von Kossa, Oil Red 0 and Alcian blue staining respectively. Furthermore, these cells were found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem Androgen Receptor inhibitor cell markers like Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 which accentuate their pluripotent property. In conclusion, caprine amniotic fluid represents a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and these cells offer their scope for multiple regenerative therapies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The optical properties of hydrogen exposed palladium (Pd) and palladium oxide (PdO) thin films are calculated from reflectance and transmittance measurements in the visible and near infrared range (400-900 nm). The time evolution of the films’ optical constants when exposed to hydrogen is shown. The real part of palladium’s refractive index increases about 5%, whereas the imaginary part decreases nearly 15% after hydrogen absorption. The Pd films’ resistance also increased upon hydrogen absorption, as expected.