In this study it was evaluated the effect of L-NAME and naltrexon

In this study it was evaluated the effect of L-NAME and naltrexone in the antinociception induced by administration of gabapentin in the orofacial formalin test of mice. Methods: The algesiometer assay was performed by the administration of 20 pi of 2% formalin solution injected into the upper right lip of each mouse. Results: The dose of gabapentin that produces

the 50% of the maximum possible effect (ED50) was significantly increased by the pretreatment with L-NAME or naltrexone. Conclusions: These results suggest that gabapentin produce antinociception partly via the activation nitridergic pathways and opioid 3-MA PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor system. (C) 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban &Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.”
“Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 isolated from Kyoto pickles enhances splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity and exhibit anti-allergic effects by modulating the Th1/Th2 (T-helper1/T-helper2) balance. In the present study,

we investigated whether the immune response could LY2606368 be activated by intranasal administration of S-PT84 in the respiratory immune system and protected against influenza virus infection in mice. When BALB/c mice received intranasal administration of S-PT84 once daily for 3 consecutive days, S-PT84 strongly induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production in mediastinal lymph node (MLN) cells. At intranasal infection with influenza virus PR8 (a mouse-adapted H1N1 strain) after S-PT84 treatment, the survival rates of mice improved in a dose-dependent manner, and the titer of influenza virus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) was significantly decreased by S-PT84 administration. Production of IL-12 and this website alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) in BALF

were significantly higher in mice treated with S-PT84 compared to the control mice. Lung NK activity was also significantly augmented in S-PT84-treated mice. These results suggested that the L pentosus strain S-PT84 showed inhibitory activity against influenza virus infection. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (WPS) was obtained from Laminaria japonica by hot water extraction. Three major polysaccharide fractions (WPS-1. WPS-2 and WPS-3) were purified from WPS by anion-exchange chromatography. Monosaccharide components analysis indicated that galactose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS and WPS-3, accounting for 56.25% and 54.11%, respectively. And fucose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS-1 and WPS-2, accounting for 46.91% and 45.1%, respectively. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that WPS-2 showed significant function of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and WPS-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical. Cytotoxicity of all polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining.

In contrast to TNF-alpha and IL-6, the surfactant components upre

In contrast to TNF-alpha and IL-6, the surfactant components upregulate LPS-mediated immunoregulatory

GSI-IX datasheet IL-10 production, an effect reversed by IRAK-M knockdown. In conclusion, these data identify an important signaling regulator in human macrophages that is used by surfactant to control the long-term alveolar inflammatory response, i.e., enhanced IRAK-M activity.”
“Morphogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is still only partially understood. We have characterized the role of HCMV tegument protein pUL71 in viral replication and morphogenesis. By using a rabbit antibody raised against the C terminus of pUL71, we could detect the protein in infected cells, as well as in virions showing a molecular mass GW4869 cost of approximately 48 kDa. The expression of pUL71, detected as early as 48 h postinfection, was not blocked by the antiviral drug foscarnet, indicating an early expression. The role of pUL71 during virus replication was investigated by construction and analysis

of a UL71 stop mutant (TBstop71). The mutant could be reconstituted on noncomplementing cells proving that pUL71 is nonessential for virus replication in human fibroblasts. However, the inhibition of pUL71 expression resulted in a severe growth defect, as reflected by an up to 16-fold reduced extracellular virus yield after a high-multiplicity infection and a small-plaque phenotype. Ultrastructural analysis of cells infected with TBstop71 virus revealed an increased number of nonenveloped

nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm, many of them at different stages of envelopment, indicating that final envelopment of nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm was affected. In addition, enlarged multivesicular bodies GSK1838705A datasheet (MVBs) were found in close proximity to the viral assembly compartment, suggesting that pUL71 affects MVBs during virus infection. The observation of numerous TBstop71 virus particles attached to MVB membranes and budding processes into MVBs indicated that these membranes can be used for final envelopment of HCMV.”
“Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of total enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition in prevention of pancreatic necrotic infection in severe acute pancreatitis.\n\nMethods: One hundred seven patients were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2007. In the first week of hospitalization, they were randomized to feeding by either total parenteral nutrition (54 patients) or total enteral nutrition (53 patients). All patients were concomitantly administered with sufficient prophylactic antibiotics. Computed tomographic scan and C-reactive protein level indicated a similar clinical severity in both groups.\n\nResults: Eighty percent of the patients developed organ failure in the group with total parenteral nutrition, which was higher than that in the group with total enteral nutrition (21%). Eighty percent and 22% (P < 0.

Results showed that optimum growth of the selected Bacillus spp

Results showed that optimum growth of the selected Bacillus spp. occurred at 30 degrees C, pH 7.5, and 1.5% NaCl, and they secreted protease, amylase, and lipase. Vibrio spp. were also inhibited by 3 Bacillus spp. In addition, the selected Bacillus spp. had no pathogenic effect on shrimp postlarvae (PL) and were able to reduce TAN. They promoted better BKM120 growth and survival in shrimp PL without water exchange. This study was a systematic approach undertaken for the selection of suitable Bacillus

spp. as bioremediators for a Penaeus monodon culture system.”
“The current study investigated the immediate neurophysiological effects of different types of massage in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Much attention has been given to the default mode network, a set of brain regions showing greater activity in the resting state. These regions (i.e. insula, posterior and anterior cingulate, inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortices) have been postulated to be involved in the neural correlates of consciousness, specifically in arousal and

awareness. We posit that massage would modulate these same regions given the benefits and pleasant affective properties of touch. To this end, healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1. Swedish massage, 2. reflexology, 3. massage with an object or 4. a resting control condition. The right

foot was massaged while each participant performed a cognitive association click here task in the scanner. We found that the Swedish massage treatment Caspase inhibitor reviewCaspases apoptosis activated the subgenual anterior and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices. This increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was maintained only in the former brain region during performance of the cognitive task. Interestingly, the reflexology massage condition selectively affected the retrosplenial/posterior cingulate in the resting state, whereas massage with the object augmented the BOLD response in this region during the cognitive task performance. These findings should have implications for better understanding how alternative treatments might affect resting state neural activity and could ultimately be important for devising new targets in the management of mood disorders.”
“The recently described novel gyroviruses may infect chickens and/or humans; however, their pathogenic potential is unknown. In our metagenomic investigation, we detected many of the novel gyroviruses in the fecal viromes of ferrets with lymph node and organ enlargement. The complete genomic sequences of selected gyrovirus strains showed 90.7-99.4 % similarity to homologous reference gyrovirus strains.

“A pair of solvatochromic phenolate betaines that differed

“A pair of solvatochromic phenolate betaines that differed only in their lipophilicity was synthesized. Their solvatochromic responses in pure solvents, in a DMSO-MeOH solvent mixture as well as in micellar solutions were different, an observation which confirmed the fact that sensor lipophilicity contributes to the interpretation of solvatochromism. Quantum mechanical calculations reproduced the observed spectral differences. Molecular dynamics simulations shed light on the solute-solvent interactions responsible for their differences in solvent mixtures. (C) 2009

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is a successful predator and repellent of a range of insect pests of many economically important AZD6094 cost crops and forest trees. To use the ant as a biocontrol agent, extension officers and farmers need to know the best time of day to identify and transplant

the ant colonies and to measure the abundance of the ant. To answer these questions, it is important to know about ant activity over a 24-h period at the colony level. Ant activities of three weaver ant colonies on the Tiwi campus of Charles Darwin University, Darwin, were measured in both dry and wet seasons in 1997 and 1998. The activity patterns on three types of ant trails learn more showed that ants were least active between the hours of 10:30 and 14:00, and their activity peaked between 16:00 and 21:00 h. There was also a smaller activity peak from 8:00 to 9:00 h. The best time of day to identify ant colonies and to measure ant abundance is from 16:00 to 21:00 h (late afternoon to dusk). The best time to transplant weaver ant colonies find more is between 10:30 and 14:00 h (midday).”
“Since randomized controlled trials are difficult to perform for ethical reasons in a potentially deadly condition like status epilepticus (SE), a retrospective database analysis may be welcome to broaden the evidence for the treatment of SE. In this retrospective study we evaluated every SE treatment at the neurological department

of the University of Rostock from January 2000 to December 2009 in order to determine the efficacy of different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in terminating different kinds of SE. We analyzed the frequency of refractory courses in different types of SE, at which time which AED was administered and at which time which AED was effective to terminate the different epileptic conditions. A second aim of this study was to evaluate the course and the outcome of different kinds of SE. Statistical comparisons were performed with the x(2)-test. 167 episodes of SE in 118 patients could be evaluated. The efficacy rates of AEDs differed significantly, mainly due to the superior efficacy of clonazepam (CZP).

EIEC and ETEC were not detected in the control cases EHEC was no

EIEC and ETEC were not detected in the control cases. EHEC was not isolated from either the diarrheal or control cases. Conclusion: DEC strains are a significant cause of diarrhea in VS-4718 chemical structure children. The two Multiplex PCR

assays can be used for the detection of DEC in routine diagnostic laboratories. These assays are specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of DEC. EAEC was the most frequent pathotype in the population under study.”
“Background: Chronic hemodynamic overloading leads to heart failure (HF) due to incompletely understood mechanisms. To gain deeper insight into the molecular pathophysiology of volume overload-induced HF and to identify potential markers and targets for novel therapies, we performed proteomic and mRNA expression analysis comparing myocardium from Wistar rats with HF induced by a chronic aorto-caval fistula (ACF) and sham-operated rats harvested at the advanced, decompensated stage of HF.\n\nMethods: We analyzed control and failing myocardium employing iTRAQ labeling, two-dimensional peptide separation combining peptide IEF and nano-HPLC with MALDI-MS/MS. For SYN-117 supplier the transcriptomic analysis we employed Illumina RatRef-12v1 Expression BeadChip.\n\nResults: In the proteomic analysis we identified 2030 myocardial proteins, of which 66 proteins were differentially

expressed. The mRNA expression analysis identified 851 differentially expressed mRNAs.\n\nConclusions: The differentially expressed proteins confirm a switch in the substrate preference from fatty acids to other sources in the failing heart. Failing hearts showed downregulation of the major calcium transporters SERCA2 and ryanodine receptor 2 and altered expression of creatine kinases. Decreased expression of two NADPH producing proteins suggests a decreased redox reserve. Overexpression of annexins supports their possible potential as HF biomarkers. Most importantly, among the most up-regulated proteins in ACF hearts were monoamine oxidase A and transglutaminase 2 that are both potential attractive targets of low molecular weight inhibitors in future HF therapy.”
“Besides its influence BYL719 in vivo on plant growth and health,

plant-associated bacteria exert an impact on fruit quality. Methylotrophic bacteria can enhance the biosynthesis of strawberry flavor compounds, especially the two furanoid compounds 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2H-furanone (DMHF) and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-2H-furanone in vitro. Here, we report the selection and characterization of Methylobacterium extorquens DSM 21961, a strain that was able to enhance the furanone content ad planta under greenhouse conditions. For monitoring the colonization of strawberry plants, a strain-specific quantification system for M. extorquens DSM 21961 was developed. Specificity, linear range and quantitative limit of the system were shown, and successful application was demonstrated in a monitoring experiment of M. extorquens DSM 21961 on strawberry leaves under greenhouse conditions.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Inner hair cells (IHCs) of the cochlea use ribbon synapses to transmit auditory information faithfully to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). In the present study, we used genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein bassoon in mice to manipulate the morphology and function of the IHC synapse. Although partial-deletion mutants lacking functional bassoon

(Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) ) had a near-complete loss of ribbons from the synapses (up to 88% ribbonless synapses), Etomoxir gene-trap mutants (Bsn(gt)) showed weak residual expression of bassoon and 56% ribbonless synapses, whereas the remaining 44% had a loosely anchored ribbon. Patch-clamp recordings and synaptic Ca(V)1.3 FRAX597 research buy immunolabeling indicated a larger number of Ca2+ channels for Bsngt IHCs compared with Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) IHCs and for Bsn(gt) ribbon-occupied versus Bsn(gt) ribbonless synapses. An intermediate phenotype of Bsngt IHCs was also found by membrane capacitance measurements for sustained exocytosis, but not for the size of the readily releasable vesicle pool. The frequency and amplitude of EPSCs were reduced in Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) mouse SGNs, whereas their postsynaptic AMPA receptor clusters were largely unaltered. Sound coding in SGN, assessed by recordings of single auditory nerve fibers and their population responses in vivo, was similarly

affected in Bsn(gt) and Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) mice. Both genotypes showed impaired sound onset coding and reduced evoked and spontaneous spike rates. In summary, reduced bassoon expression or complete lack of full-length bassoon impaired sound encoding to a similar extent, which is consistent with the comparable reduction of the readily releasable vesicle pool. This suggests that the remaining loosely anchored ribbons in Bsngt IHCs were functionally inadequate or that ribbon independent mechanisms dominated the coding deficit.”
“Background. There is controversy in the literature

about whether robotic total thyroidectomy should be performed through unilateral or bilateral axillary incisions. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed critical analysis of the single-incision technique with a focus on postoperative pain, morbidity, and oncologic outcomes.\n\nMethods. Between June 2009 and May 2012, 30 patients underwent selleck chemical robotic neck surgery through a single axillary incision. The perioperative outcomes of 16 patients who underwent robotic total thyroidectomy were compared with 30 consecutive patients undergoing conventional total thyroidectomy. Data were collected from a prospectively maintained, institutional review board-approved database. All data are presented as mean values +/- standard error of the mean.\n\nResults. Both groups were similar regarding age, gender, body mass index, tumor size, and tumor type. For all patients, skin-to-skin operative time (OT) was less in the conventional group (139 +/- 8 vs 183 +/- 11 minutes, respectively; P = .002).

Design: prospective pregnancy cohort study Setting: Melbourne, V

Design: prospective pregnancy cohort study. Setting: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Population: 1507 nulliparous women. Methods: women were recruited from six public hospitals between six and 24 weeks gestation. Written questionnaires were completed at recruitment and at three, six and 12 months post partum. Outcome measures: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); standardised measures of urinary and faecal incontinence, a checklist Selleckchem BIIB057 of symptoms for other physical health problems. Results: overall, 16.1% of women reported depressive symptoms during the first 12 months post partum, with point

prevalence at three, six and 12 months post partum of 6.9%, 8.8% and 7.8% respectively. The most commonly reported physical health problems in the first three months were tiredness (67%), back pain (47%), breast problems (37%), painful perineum (30%), and urinary incontinence (29%). Compared with women reporting 0-2 health problems in the first three months post

partum, women reporting 5 or more health problems had a six-fold increase in likelihood of reporting concurrent depressive symptoms at three months post partum (Adjusted OR-6.69, 95% CI=3.0-15.0) and a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting subsequent depressive symptoms at 6-12 months post partum (Adjusted OR-3.43, 95% CI 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: poor physical health in the early postnatal period is associated with poorer mental health throughout the first 12 months post Dinaciclib cost partum. Early intervention to promote maternal mental health MK-4827 cell line should incorporate assessment and intervention to address common postnatal physical health problems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antifilarial, antiwolbachial

and DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of nanocurcumin (nano-CUR). Methods: Nano-CUR formulations (F1-F6) were prepared using free radical polymerization and were characterized by particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release kinetics. Antifilarial potential was evaluated in vivo against Brugian filariasis in an experimental rodent model, Mastomys coucha, by selecting the formulation that maximized parasite elimination characteristics. Wolbachial status was determined by PCR and a relaxation assay was used to estimate DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity. Results: Nano-CUR (F3) having a 60 nm diameter and 89.78% entrapment efficiency showed the most favorable characteristics for the elimination of filarial parasites. In vivo pharmacokinetic and organ distribution studies demonstrate significantly greater C-(max) (86.6 +/- 2.56 ng ml(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) (796 perpendicular to 89.8 ng d ml(-1)), MRT (19.5 perpendicular to 7.82 days) and bioavailability of CUR (70.02%) in the organs from which the adult parasites were recovered.

Bosutinib is a kinase inhibitor that targets the BCR-ABL kinase

Bosutinib is a kinase inhibitor that targets the BCR-ABL kinase. The recommended dose is 500 mg of bosutinib once daily. The main evidence of efficacy for selleck chemical bosutinib

was based on a CML subgroup analysis of study 3160A4-200, a phase I/II study of bosutinib in Ph+ leukemia in imatinib-resistant or intolerant CML. The subgroup was defined based on the presence of a BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation that would be expected to confer resistance to dasatinib (F317, E255) or nilotinib (E255, Y253, F359) and expected to have sensitivity to bosutinib or based on the presence of medical conditions or prior toxicities that may predispose the patient to unacceptable risk in the setting of nilotinib or dasatinib therapy. A conditional marketing authorization was granted because of the limited evidence of efficacy and safety currently supporting this last-line indication.”
“The development of a highly parallel simulation of the acousto-optic effect is detailed. The simulation supports optically heterogeneous simulation domains under insonification by arbitrary monochromatic ultrasound

fields. An adjoint method for acousto-optics selleck inhibitor is proposed to permit point-source/point-detector simulations. The flexibility and efficiency of this simulation code is demonstrated in the development of spatial absorption sensitivity maps which are in broad agreement with current experimental investigations. The simulation code has the potential to provide guidance in the feasibility and optimization of future studies of the acousto-optic technique, and its speed may permit its use as part of an iterative inversion model. 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.4.045002]“
“Green tea (GT) and its components have been shown to possess antiobesity properties PD-L1 inhibitor and the corresponding mechanisms of action are being investigated, given the epidemic proportions of obesity incidence. In the current work, we used 12-mo-old male Wistar rats

to test the effect of 6 mo of treatment with GT as the sole drinking beverage (52.8 +/- 6.4 mL/d) on adipose tissue (AT). AT aromatase expression was determined by Western blotting, plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone were determined by RIA, and achipocyte size determined by measuring diameter in tissue sections. Proliferation and apoptosis were also assessed by Ki67 immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, respectively. Evaluations were made in subcutaneous (sc) AT and visceral (v) AT. Body weight increased over time in both groups (P < 0.001), but the increase was more pronounced in controls (P < 0.001) and food and fluid intake did not influence that effect. At the end of the experiment, aromatase expression increased in the AT (318.5 +/- 60.6% of control in scAT, P < 0.05, and 285.5 +/- 82.9% of control in vAT, P < 0.01).

Similarly, when using cells from colonies at Days 7 to 8 after tr

Similarly, when using cells from colonies at Days 7 to 8 after treatment for handmade cloning, increased blastocyst formation rates were observed after the cells were treated with a batch showing higher colony formation. In conclusion, assessment of cell colony formation may be used as selection marker for Xenopus egg extract used for pretreatment of donor cells prior to cloning.”
“Background: The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly being recognized. This requires accurate triaging of suspected RA referrals from primary Selleckchem 3MA care and expedient assessment of these patients in secondary care.\n\nObjectives:

To assess the factors associated with urgent triage for first specialist appointment and early disease modifying agents in rheumatic disease treatment.\n\nMethods: CAL-101 nmr The general practitioner (GP) referrals to a single rheumatology service from 128 new RA patients were assessed for their information content and triage allocation by the Rheumatologists. Information

on symptoms, signs, and investigation results were collected. Factors associated with urgent triage allocation, time to treatment, and a GP requesting urgency were assessed.\n\nResults: Median time from symptom onset to treatment was 6.1 months. Triage allocation to urgent was associated with earlier treatment (difference of 97 days, P = 0.003). GP perception of urgency (odds buy VX-680 ratio = 13.34, 95% confidence interval: 2.20-81.02) was independently associated with an urgent triage allocation by the triaging rheumatologist. Swollen joints and a raised C-reactive protein predicted GP request for urgency.\n\nConclusion: Triage is important to facilitate early treatment; however, rheumatologists in this service are not currently triaging suspected RA referrals with reference to known poor prognostic indicators. Several interventions could improve both informative referrals

and triaging of referrals to decrease time to diagnosis and treatment. These interventions could include public education, GP education sessions with associated distribution of referral guidelines, and reminding triaging rheumatology clinicians about the available prognostic factors often present in GP referrals that assist with correct triage.”
“High resolution two-photon spectrum of the transitions 6S(1/2) -> 6P(3/2) -> 8S(1/2), 9S(1/2) and 6S(1/2) -> 6P(1/2) -> 7D(3/2) in neutral Cs-133 are presented in a room-temperature vapor cell using a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Spectra are obtained by scanning the repetition frequency of the femtosecond optical frequency comb over the two-photon hyperfine structure. The centroid frequency of the 6S(1/2) -> 8S(1/2), 9S(1/2), 7D(3/2) transitions are 729009798.80(17) MHz, 806761363.96(11) MHz, and 780894762.595(23) MHz, respectively.

The extracellular

The extracellular LY3023414 ic50 extract from Fischerella sp. CENA213 and M. aeruginosa NPJB-1 exhibited inhibitory activity against 3LL lung cancer cells at 0.8 mu g ml(-1) and Oxynema sp. CENA135, Cyanobium sp. CENA154, M. aeruginosa NPJB-1 and M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 presented inhibitory activity against CT26 colon cancer cells at 0.8 mu g ml(-1). Other

extracts were able to inhibit 3LL cell-growth at higher concentrations (20 mu g ml(-1)) such as Nostoc sp. CENA67, Cyanobium sp. CENA154 and M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4, while CT26 cells were inhibited at the same concentration by Nostoc sp. CENA67 and Fischerella sp. CENA213. These extracts presented very low inhibitory activity on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. BLZ945 inhibitor The results showed that some cyanobacterial strains are a rich source of natural products with potential for pharmacological and biotechnological applications.”
“Patients with neuropathic pain (NeuP) experience substantially lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than the general population. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to test the hypothesis that NeuP is associated with low levels of health utility. A structured search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CINAHL) was undertaken. Reference lists of retrieved reports were also reviewed. Studies reporting utility

single-index measures (preference based) in NeuP were included. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool EQ-5D index utility estimates across NeuP conditions. The association of utilities and pre-defined factors (NeuP condition, patient age, sex, duration and severity of pain and method of utility scoring) was examined using meta-regression. Twenty-four studies reporting

find more health utility values in patients with NeuP were included in the review. Weighted pooled utility score across the studies varied from a mean of 0.15 for failed back surgery syndrome to 0.61 for post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Although there was substantial heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) across studies, we found little variation in utility as a function of patient and study characteristics. The single exception was a significant relationship (P < 0.0001) between increasing neuropathic pain severity and a reduction in utility. This study confirms the hypothesis that patients with NeuP experience low utilities and therefore low HRQoL. However, the contribution of non-NeuP co-morbidity remains unclear. Neuropathic pain severity emerged as a primary predictor of the negative health impact of NeuP. (C) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential.