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All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Review Introduction Semiconductor nanostructures are the most investigated object in solid state physics due to their promising application in microelectronics and optoelectronics. Today we have some well-developed methods for the formation of nanostructures: MBE , CVD , ion
implantation , and laser ablation . The above-mentioned methods need subsequent thermal annealing of the structures in a furnace. Nanostructure growths by these methods need a lot of time and a high-vacuum or a special environment, for example, inert Ar gas. As a result, nanocrystals grow with uncontrollable parameters, broad size distribution, and chaotically, MDV3100 concentration the selleck so-called self-assembly. Therefore, one of the important tasks for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic growth is the elaboration of new methods for the formation of nanostructures in semiconductors with controlled features. On the other hand,
laser technology is of interest both fundamentally because laser radiation of a semiconductor can lead to different and sometimes opposite results, for example, annealing defects after ion implantation or creating new additional defects and from a device viewpoint , since it can be used for annealing B/n-Si or F/p-Si structures during p-n junction formation which is appropriate for many kinds of microelectronic devices . Moreover, PR-171 supplier our recent investigations have shown that laser radiation can be successfully applied for formation of cone-like nanostructures [7–10] with laser intensity, which do not cause melting of the material. The 1D-graded band gap structure in elementary semiconductors was formed due to quantum confinement effect . Furthermore, it has been shown that irradiation by laser of Si single crystal P-type ATPase with intensity which exceeds melting of material leads to formation of microcones, which are possible to use for solar cells, the so-called black Si . The lack of understanding of the interaction effects of laser radiation
with a semiconductor limits laser technology application in microelectronics . So the aims of this research are to show a new possibility for formation of nanocones and microcones on a surface of elementary semiconductors (Si, Ge) and their solid solution by laser radiation, and to propose the mechanism of cones formation. Materials and methods For the formation of nanocones in the experiments on i-type Ge single crystals with resistivity ρ = 45 Ω cm, N a = 7.4 × 1011 cm−3, N d = 6.8 × 1011 cm−3, where N a and N d are acceptor and donor concentrations, and samples with the size of 16.0 × 3.0 × 2.0 mm3 were used. The samples were mechanically polished with diamond paste and chemically treated with H2O2 and CP-4 (HF/HNO3/CH3COOH in volume ratio of 3:5:3). Different intensities, pulse durations, and wavelengths of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser were used to irradiate the samples (pulse repetition rate at 12.5 Hz, power of P = 1.
On the other hand, if the dominant
mass transfer path is path II, a low etching rate for the thick Au mesh can also be inferred because of the large diffusion distance along the vertical direction. However, the present study shows that the thick Au mesh induces a high etching rate, and the SiNWs in the same sample have almost identical heights, especially for the SiNW arrays with large heights (see Figures 4b and 5d). The observations contradict the predictions for both models. Therefore, the mass transfer process can be concluded as a non-dominant factor with regard to the different etching rates. Figure learn more 7 Schematic of the reagent and
by-product diffusion paths and diagram of the Au/Si Schottky contact. (a) Schematic of two possible diffusion paths of the reagent and by-product during the metal-assisted chemical etching process. (b) Energy band diagram of the Au/Si Schottky contact; Φ B is the CDK phosphorylation barrier height for the electronic holes injected from the Au into the Si. The difference in the etching rates is naturally attributed to the charge transfer process. An oxidation-reduction reaction is well accepted to occur during the etching of the Si in a solution containing HF and H2O2[14, 20]. The Entospletinib nmr H2O2 is preferentially reduced at the noble metal surface, thereby generating electronic holes h+ according to reaction 1 (cathode reaction) : (1) At the anode, the generated electronic holes are injected into the Si substrate in contact with the metal, Baricitinib leading to the oxidation and then to the dissolution of the Si underneath the metal according to reaction 2 : (2) The charge transfer between the Si and the Au would be heavily affected by the Au/Si Schottky barrier height (see Figure 7b). It has been reported that the size of the metal has an important effect on the surface band bending of Si [13, 14]. The Schottky barrier height
of the semiconductor/metal contact is said to increase with the decrease of the feature size of the metal [13, 21, 22]. Based on the results and discussions above, the thickness of the Au mesh, and not the lateral size, can be suggested as the factor that determines the Au/Si Schottky barrier height, considering the continuous property of the Au mesh. The barrier height Φ B decreases with the increase of the thickness of the Au mesh. Therefore, electronic holes can be easily injected from the thick Au mesh into the Si substrate underneath the Au because of the reduced barrier height compared with that of the thin Au mesh, thus, resulting in a high etching rate.
These cultures were either the same as (Cyanidioschyzon and Synechococcus)
or only slightly lower in biomass (Chlamydomonas) over the 48 h growth period by comparison to the metal-free controls. Although cadmium stress has been shown to induce sulfur limiting conditions [7, 19], this was not entirely alleviated by the simultaneous provision of sulfate in any of the studied species, thus indicating that established metabolic reserves of sulfur other than sulfate itself, may be involved in cellular protection. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that Cd exposure triggers a decline of photosynthetic apparatus thereby liberating sulfur as well as nitrogen and iron, which can be subsequently used for the synthesis of Cd detoxification enzymes . Assimilated sulfate appears Ro-3306 nmr to create an organic sulfur pool that can be readily employed to biotransform Cd(II) as it enters the cell in a similar
manner to that proposed for Hg(II) where chemical modification of thiols severely lessened HgS production [14, 15]. Why this cannot be provided by simultaneous sulfate provision is likely to be a product of the high energy demand (732 kJ mol-1) required to reduce sulfate to sulfide for thiol production, energy required for sulfate uptake, and the decline in sulfate uptake induced by cadmium itself . These organisms rely on photosynthesis to generate reducing power that is essential for carbon fixation. If this is shunted towards sulfate assimilation, it would inhibit cellular metabolism and growth. By temporally displacing Tucidinostat supplier energy requirements to a pretreatment period, this is overcome and the cells are able to adequately cope with any stress imposed by subsequent exposure to Cd(II). The simultaneous sulfate and metal treated cells grew marginally better than the cells treated Tangeritin with metal alone in Cyanidioschyzon and Synechococcus (Figures 1B & C), but not in Chlamydomonas. Metabolic differences
might ac-count for this; i.e. the former species may have relatively more efficient sulfate assimilation. Interestingly, in a separate study it was revealed that Synechococcus is able to utilize elemental sulfur as a sulfur source resulting in MK-8931 supplier enhanced metal tolerance (data not shown). These results point to the importance of sulfur nutrition in cadmium tolerance that has implications for other organisms [20, 21], including humans . Nevertheless, this has not been well documented in the literature. The other treatment in which Synechococcus grew better than in cadmium alone was that in which cysteine was supplied both prior to and during metal exposure. However, this cannot be accounted for by a relatively high cysteine desulfhydrase activity in Synechococcus (Figure 4). Both eukaryotic species were not as adept at coping with this form of sulfur supplementation.
a, b Pustules. c–i Conidiophores (Hairs visible in e). DNA-PK inhibitor j Conidia. All from SNA. All from G.J.S. 00–72. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b = 0.25 mm; c–e = 20 μm; f–i = 10 μm Fig. 10 Trichoderma gillesii, Hypocrea teleomorph. a, b Stroma morphology. c Stroma surface, macro view.
d Stroma surface, micro view. e–g Perithecia, median longitudinal sections showing surface region and internal tissue of stroma. h, i Asci. j Part-ascospores. Note the subglobose part-ascospores in Figs. i and j All from G.J.S. 00–72. Scale bars: a, b = 1 mm; c = 0.5 mm; d, g = 20 μm; e = 50 μm, f = 100 μm; h–j = 10 μm MycoBank MB 563905 Trichodermati sinensi Bissett, Kubicek et Szakacs simile sed ob conidia anguste ellipsoidea, 3.2–4.0 × 1.7–2.2 μm differt. Holotypus: BPI 882294. Teleomorph: Hypocrea sp. Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 25–35°C; after 72 h in darkness with intermittent light colony on PDA completely or nearly completely filling a 9-cm-diam Petri plate (slightly slower at 35°C); within 96 h in darkness with intermittent light colony radius on SNA 40–50 mm (slightly faster at 35°C). Conidia forming on PDA within 48–72 h at 25–35°C in darkness with intermittent light; after 1 week on SNA at 25°C under light. No diffusing pigment noted on PDA. Colonies grown on SNA for 1 week at 25°C under light slowly producing pustules. Pustules formed of intertwined hyphae, individual conidiophores not evident, slowly turning green. Conidiophores arising from hyphae of the pustule,
typically comprising a strongly developed main axis with fertile lateral branches and often terminating in a sterile terminal extension (‘hair’). Hairs conspicuous, short, stiff erect, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor sterile, blunt, septate. Fertile branches increasing in length from the tip of the conidiophore, often paired, rebranching to produce either solitary phialides or unicellular
secondary branches; secondary branches terminating in a whorl of 3–5 divergent phialides. Intercalary phialides not seen. Phialides lageniform, nearly obovoidal, typically widest below the middle, (4.0–)4.5–7.0(−9.5) μm long, (2.2–)2.5–3.0(−3.2) μm at the widest point, base (1.2–)1.5–2.0(−3.0) μm wide, L/W (1.4–)1.5–2.5(−3.5) μm, arising from a cell (1.7–)2.0–3.0(−3.7) μm wide. Conidia ellipsoidal, (3.0–)3.2–4.0(−4.5) × (1.5–)1.7–2.2(−2.5) μm, L/W (1.4–)1.5–2.2(−2.5), green, smooth. Chlamydospores not observed. Teleomorph: Stromata brown, discoidal, CYTH4 margins slightly free, 3–4 mm diam, cespitose and covering an area ca. 15 mm diam, surface plane to undulate, GANT61 ic50 conforming to the surface of the substratum and adjacent stromata, ostiolar openings appearing as minute black papillae, no reaction to 3% KOH, ostiolar area greenish in lactic acid. Cells of the stroma surface in face view pseudoparenchymatous, ca. 5.5 × 4.5 μm diam, slightly thick-walled. Perithecia elliptical in section, 220–250 μm high, 130–190 μm wide, ostiolar region formed of small cells and gradually merging with the cells of the surrounding stroma surface.