As for the mechanisms by which liver regeneration occurs after bo

As for the mechanisms by which liver regeneration occurs after bone marrow cells transfusion, many mechanisms have been suggested: fusion between hepatocytes and transplanted bone marrow cells has been substantiated as a mechanism by which hepatocytes that carry a bone marrow tag are generated[48], although many studies suggested that cell fusion was not the main mechanism involved in parenchymal repopulation with exogenous cells[49, 50]. Another mechanism may be that the stem cells provide cytokines and growth click here factors in their microenvironment that promote hepatocyte functions by paracrine mechanisms[48]. Robert and coworkers[51] Belnacasan nmr stated that the organ microenvironment can modify the response of metastatic

tumor cells to therapy and alter the effectiveness of anticancer agents in destroying the tumor cells without producing undesirable toxic effects. In his review,

Luminespib Muraca and coworkers[41] pointed out that, the mechanisms underlying the positive effects reported in preliminary trials are complex and most likely do not involve repopulation of liver parenchyma with bone marrow-derived cells but might result from the production of trophic factors by the infused cells, therefore The identification and characterization of the niche are prerequisites for the identification of stem cells and for understanding their behaviour in physiological and pathological conditions. Niches are local tissue microenvironments that maintain and regulate stem cells [52], Livraghi Carteolol HCl and colleagues[53] stated that the essential role of stem cell microenvironment in preventing carcinogenesis is by providing signals to inhibit proliferation

and to promote differentiation. Human MSCs home to sites of Kaposi’s sarcoma, and potently inhibit tumor growth in vivo by downregulating Akt activity in tumor cells that are cultured with hMSCs prior to transplantation in animal tumor models [54]. Furthermore, tumor cells may secrete proteins that can activate signaling pathways that facilitate MSCs migration to the tumor site. Direct transdifferentiation of cells is another mechanism of liver regeneration, although it has not been demonstrated [48]. However, recent observations shed some light on possible mechanisms underlying the observed bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) transdifferentiation driven by injured tissues [55]. As a result of injury, tissues release chemokines attracting circulating BMDC, and can produce microvescicles including RNA, proteins and a variety of signals. The authors provided evidence suggesting that these microvescicles are taken up by BMDC and can modify cell phenotype mimicking resident cells in the host tissue. In conclusion, the extensive work performed during the last decade suggests that a series of complex interactions exist between BMDC and injured tissues, including the liver. Microvesicles are mediators of cell reprogramming.

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