Bibliography 1. Walker RG, et al. Clin Nephrol. 1990;34:103–7. (Level 2) 2. Ballardie FW, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:142–8. (Level 2) 3. Pozzi C, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1783–90. (Level 2) 4.
Harmankaya O, et al. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;33:167–71. (Level 2) 5. Lai KN, et al. BMJ. 1987;295:1165–8. (Level 2) 6. Frisch G, et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:2139–45. (Level 2) 7. Tang S, et al. Kidney Int. 2005;68:802–12. (Level 2) 8. Maes BD, et al. Kidney Int. 2004;65:1842–9. (Level 2) 9. Xu G, et al. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:362–7. (Level 1) 10. Xie Y, et al. Am J Med Sci. 2011;341:367–72. (Level 2) Chapter 11: Nephrotic syndrome Is cancer screening recommended for patients with membranous nephropathy?
JSH-23 cost Cancer is one of the leading causes of secondary membranous nephropathy. PRN1371 In western countries, about 7–10 % of patients with membranous selleck inhibitor nephropathy have been complicated with cancer. In Japan, however, the renal biopsy registry shows that less than 1.0 % of membranous nephropathy patients have been complicated with cancer, especially with only two cases with solid tumors. From these data, the complication rate for cancer in Japanese patients with membranous nephropathy is lower than that of western countries. It remains unclear whether the cancer is more complex in patients with membranous nephropathy than in the general population in Japan. Further study is needed to reveal the relationship between membranous nephropathy and cancer. Bibliography 1. Burstein DM, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993;22:5–10. (Level 4) 2. Lefaucheur C, et al. Kidney Int.
2006;70:1510–7. (Level 4) 3. Bjorneklett R, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:396–403. (Level 4) 4. Zeng CH, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52:691–8. (Level 4) 5. Yokoyama H, et al. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012;16:557–63. (Level Smoothened 4) Is cyclophosphamide with corticosteroid recommended for the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy? Meta-analysis of 18 RCTs including 1,025 cases published in 2004, confirmed that alkylating agents were more effective for the initial treatment of nephrotic membranous nephropathy than placebo or corticosteroid alone. Jha et al. showed that cyclophosphamide combined with corticosteroid significantly induced remission and suppressed the progression of renal dysfunction in membranous nephropathy. In addition, a prospective study of 103 patients with nephrotic membranous nephropathy showed significant efficacy of treatment using cyclophosphamide combined with corticosteroid compared with a historical control. In Japan, corticosteroid alone is recommended for the initial treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in the Guidelines for the Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome published in 2011 based on the data from a large cohort study of Japanese population.