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“Inner hair cells (IHCs) of the cochlea use ribbon synapses to transmit auditory information faithfully to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). In the present study, we used genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein bassoon in mice to manipulate the morphology and function of the IHC synapse. Although partial-deletion mutants lacking functional bassoon
(Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) ) had a near-complete loss of ribbons from the synapses (up to 88% ribbonless synapses), Etomoxir gene-trap mutants (Bsn(gt)) showed weak residual expression of bassoon and 56% ribbonless synapses, whereas the remaining 44% had a loosely anchored ribbon. Patch-clamp recordings and synaptic Ca(V)1.3 FRAX597 research buy immunolabeling indicated a larger number of Ca2+ channels for Bsngt IHCs compared with Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) IHCs and for Bsn(gt) ribbon-occupied versus Bsn(gt) ribbonless synapses. An intermediate phenotype of Bsngt IHCs was also found by membrane capacitance measurements for sustained exocytosis, but not for the size of the readily releasable vesicle pool. The frequency and amplitude of EPSCs were reduced in Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) mouse SGNs, whereas their postsynaptic AMPA receptor clusters were largely unaltered. Sound coding in SGN, assessed by recordings of single auditory nerve fibers and their population responses in vivo, was similarly
affected in Bsn(gt) and Bsn(Delta Ex4/5) mice. Both genotypes showed impaired sound onset coding and reduced evoked and spontaneous spike rates. In summary, reduced bassoon expression or complete lack of full-length bassoon impaired sound encoding to a similar extent, which is consistent with the comparable reduction of the readily releasable vesicle pool. This suggests that the remaining loosely anchored ribbons in Bsngt IHCs were functionally inadequate or that ribbon independent mechanisms dominated the coding deficit.”
“Background. There is controversy in the literature
about whether robotic total thyroidectomy should be performed through unilateral or bilateral axillary incisions. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed critical analysis of the single-incision technique with a focus on postoperative pain, morbidity, and oncologic outcomes.\n\nMethods. Between June 2009 and May 2012, 30 patients underwent selleck chemical robotic neck surgery through a single axillary incision. The perioperative outcomes of 16 patients who underwent robotic total thyroidectomy were compared with 30 consecutive patients undergoing conventional total thyroidectomy. Data were collected from a prospectively maintained, institutional review board-approved database. All data are presented as mean values +/- standard error of the mean.\n\nResults. Both groups were similar regarding age, gender, body mass index, tumor size, and tumor type. For all patients, skin-to-skin operative time (OT) was less in the conventional group (139 +/- 8 vs 183 +/- 11 minutes, respectively; P = .002).