, Cleveland, OH, USA) and a 300-W xenon lamp (Newport 69911, Newp

, Cleveland, OH, USA) and a 300-W xenon lamp (Newport 69911, Newport-Oriel Instruments,

Stratford, CT, USA) serving as the light source. Results and discussion Herein, the fabrication of all-solid HSC with the structure of FTO/compact-TiO2 /nanoporous-TiO2/CIS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Au involved five steps, as www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK461364.html demonstrated in Figure  1. The first step was to prepare a compact TiO2 layer by a dip-coating-anneal process (Figures  1 (step A) and 2), according our previous study [41]. SEM images (Figure  2) confirm the formation of a dense TiO2 layer on FTO glass, and this TiO2 layer has a thickness of about 300 nm. The presence of compact TiO2 selleck chemicals layer can not only improve the ohmic contact but also avoid short circuiting and/or loss of current by forming a blocking layer between FTO and P3HT in the HSC. Figure 1 Schematic illustration of the fabrication process

of FSCs. (A) preparation of compact TiO2 film; (B) preparation of nanoporous TiO2 film; (C) solvothermal growth of CIS layer; (D) spin-coating of P3HT and PEDOT:PSS; (E) evaporation of gold layer. Figure 2 Surface (a) and cross-sectional (b) SEM images of dense TiO 2 layer. The second step was to fabricate nanoporous TiO2 film on FTO/compact-TiO2 by a classic doctor-blading-anneal technique with TiO2 (P25) colloidal dispersion (Figures  1 (step B) and 3) [42]. Such nanoporous TiO2 film has a thickness of about 2 μm, as revealed by cross-sectional SEM image (Figure  3a). In addition, one can find that the surface of nanoporous TiO2 film is uniform and smooth without Lenvatinib in vitro Fenbendazole crack (Figure  3b). High-resolution SEM (Figure  3c) reveals the TiO2 film to be composed of a three-dimensional network of interconnected

particles with an average size of approximately 30 nm. It also can be found that there are many nanopores in the TiO2 film, which facilitates to absorb dye and/or other semiconductor nanocrystals. Figure 3 SEM images of nanoporous TiO 2 film: (a) cross-sectional, (b) low-, and (c) high-magnification SEM images of the surface. The third step was to in situ grow CIS nanocrystals on nanoporous TiO2 film by the classic solvothermal process (Figure  1C), where FTO/compact-TiO2/nanoporous-TiO2 film as the substrate was vertically immersed into the ethanol solution containing InCl3, CuSO4, and thioacetamide with constant concentration ratio (1:1:2) as the reactant, and the solution was solvothermally treated at 160°C for 12 h. It has been found that reactant concentrations play a significant role in the controlled growth of CIS films in our previous study [4]. Thus, the effects of reactant concentration (such as InCl3 concentration: 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 M) on the surface morphologies of CIS layer were investigated by SEM observation. Figure  4 gives the typical morphologies of CIS films prepared with different InCl3 concentration. When InCl3 concentration is low (0.01 or 0.

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