Colonization of C  rodentium on the

intestinal epithelial

Colonization of C. rodentium on the

intestinal epithelial surface resulted in a Th1-type immune response, and Th1 cytokines play a role in host-protective immunity (Simmons et al., 2002); Chen et al., 2005; Gonçalves et al., 2001). To test the hypothesis that early inoculation of probiotic La and/or prebiotic inulin may alter developmental patterns of the GAI, Th1, Th2, and T reg cytokine production and expression in the intestine- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in young mice following pathogen challenge were determined. Analysis of bacterial (Cr) antigen (Cr-Ag)-specific cytokine production of the MLN revealed that the lymphocytes from mice pretreated with probiotic La, prebiotic inulin, or the synbiotic combination of probiotic La and prebiotic inulin had significantly enhanced Cr-Ag-specific IL-10 secretion (Fig. 4a) compared with that detected in mice with C. rodentium infection selleck chemicals llc alone. Pretreatment

Inhibitor Library chemical structure of mice with the synbiotic combination of probiotic La and prebiotic inulin resulted in a more pronounced IL-10 production by the MLN cells compared with other groups (Fig. 4a). In contrast, the MLN of mice pretreated with the synbiotic combination of probiotic La and prebiotic inulin had significantly reduced Cr-Ag-specific IFN-γ response (Fig. 4b) at 2 weeks post-Cr infection. To further determine the impact of La, inulin, and combined treatments on pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine responses in the colonic tissue, we measured gene expression of IL-10 and TGF-β, the regulatory cytokines, using real-time PCR. The results showed that

mice of the synbiotic combination treated group had significantly greater colonic expression of TGF-β, in comparison with C. rodentium-infected control, prebiotic- and probiotic-treated groups (Fig. 5a), and pretreatment of mice with La only resulted in an increase in colonic TGF-β expression. These observations, therefore, suggest that probiotic La and synbiotics enhance the expression and production of TGF-β, a key regulator of immunity and vital for the suppression of enteric pathogen-induced inflammatory responses. Similarly, probiotic La and synbiotic combination treatments resulted in a significant increase in colonic IL-10 expression (Fig. 5b) in comparison with Cr Silibinin infected alone. TGF-β can act as a potent negative regulator of mucosal inflammation. However, Smad 7, by physically interfering with activation of Smad2/Smad 3 and preventing their interaction with TGF-β, causes disruption of TGF-β signaling. This may contribute to the enhanced pro-inflammatory responses in the intestine (Hayashi et al., 1997; Maggio-Price et al., 2006). Studies have suggested that NF-κB (Jobin & Sartor, 2000) and Smad 7 (Monteleone et al., 2001, 2004b) are up-regulated in IBD patients and may be responsible for colonic inflammation. NF-κB plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation.

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