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periportal and perivenous hepatocytes isolated by digitonin/collagenase perfusion. Hepatology 1989, 9:22–28.CrossRefPubMed 44. Franke WW, Schmid E, Kartenbeck J, Mayer D, Hacker HJ, Bannasch Pinometostat cost P, Osborn M, Weber K, Denk H, Wanson JC, Drochmans P: Characterization of the intermediate-sized filaments in liver cells by immunfluorescence and electron microscopy. Biol Cell 1979, 34:99–110. 45. Zhao L, Burt AD: The diffuse stellate cell system. J Mol Histol 2007, 38:53–64.CrossRefPubMed 46. Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ: Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and CD14 in LPS dependent macrophage activation. Immunobiology 1993, 187:227–232.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing Thymidine kinase interests. Authors’ contributions EU, JB and UU acquired, analysed and interpreted the data. JG made the confocal laser scanning microscopy and edited the figures. EU wrote the first draft of the manuscript and UU and RG co-wrote the final version. All authors have read

and approved the manuscript.”
“Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The virus causes chronic infection in 80% of acutely HCV-infected patients; a subset of these individuals develop progressive liver injury leading to liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma [1, 2]. Immune responses to HCV play Cyclopamine important roles at various stages of the infection. There is emerging evidence that the ability of acutely HCV-infected patients to control the primary HCV infection depends on the vigorous cellular immune reaction to the virus [3]. In the chronic phase of infection, immune responses determine the rate of progression of disease, both by limiting viral replication and by contributing to immunopathology. Livers from chronically HCV-infected individuals show T cell infiltration; however, these cells are not HCV specific and are unable to eradicate the virus [4].

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