However, little is known about when and how long terminal repeat (LTR)-silent infections selleck kinase inhibitor arise since the majority of the current latency models cannot differentiate between initial (LTR-silent) and secondary (progressive silencing) latency. In this study, we constructed and characterized a novel, double-labeled HIV-1 vector (Red-Green-HIV-1
[RGH]) that allows for detection of infected cells independently of LTR activity. Infection of Jurkat T cells and other cell lines with RGH suggests that the majority of integrated proviruses were LTR-silent early postinfection. Furthermore, the LTR-silent infections were transcriptionally competent, as the proviruses could be reactivated by a variety of T cell signaling agonists. Moreover, we used the double-labeled vector system to compare LTRs from seven different subtypes with respect to LTR silencing and reactivation. These experiments indicated that subtype D and F LTRs were more sensitive to silencing, whereas the subtype AE LTR was largely insensitive. find more Lastly, infection of activated human primary CD4(+) T cells yielded LTR-silent
as well as productive infections. Taken together, our data, generated using the newly developed RGH vector as a sensitive tool to analyze HIV-1 latency on a single-cell level, show that the majority of HIV-1 infections are latent early postinfection.”
“The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases has seen a constant increase in the global population, and is likely to be the result of extended life expectancy brought about by better health care. Despite this increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, there has been a dearth in the introduction of new disease-modifying therapies that are approved to prevent or delay the onset of these diseases, or reverse the degenerative processes in brain. Mounting evidence in the peer-reviewed literature shows that the etiopathology of these diseases is extremely complex and heterogeneous, resulting in significant comorbidity and therefore
unlikely to be mitigated by any drug acting on a single pathway or target. A recent trend in drug design and discovery is the rational design or serendipitous discovery of novel drug entities with the ability to address multiple drug targets that form part of the complex pathophysiology of a Cytidine deaminase particular disease state. In this review we discuss the rationale for developing such multifunctional drugs (also called designed multiple ligands or DMLs), and why these drug candidates seem to offer better outcomes in many cases compared to single-targeted drugs in pre-clinical studies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Examples are drawn from the literature of drug candidates that have already reached the market, some unsuccessful attempts, and others that are still in the drug development pipeline. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.