On admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable with a heart

On admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable with a heart rate of 80 beats per minute, a blood pressure of 140/80 mmHg, and Oxygen saturation of 98%. Physical examination revealed jaundice and marked tenderness in the right upper abdominal quadrant. Digital rectal examination revealed melena with no fresh

blood. #VRT752271 ic50 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Laboratory results showed leukocytosis, slight elevation in total bilirubin (3.25 mg/dl), elevated gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (738 U/l) and alkaline phosphatase-B (391 U/l). Ultrasonography showed a gallbladder with features compatible with cholecystitis containing large stones. No dilatation of the intra and extra-hepatic bile ducts was noted. Upper endoscopy with a side view endoscope revealed blood coming through the duodenal papilla with no evident papillary pathology. Angiographic computerized tomography (Figure 1) revealed active bleeding into the lumen of the gallbladder that contained two large stones. Emergency surgery was elected rather than angioembolization due to clinical find more and laboratory indices of acute cholecystitis. Figure 1 Computerized Tomography showing active bleeding into the lumen of the gallbladder. An open surgical exploration

revealed the following findings: the omentum was adherent to the gallbladder and liver. The adjacent tissues were edematous and inflamed. The free wall of the gallbladder near the Hartmann’s Pouch was perforated

with blood clots obstructing the defect (Figure 2). Dissection of the gallbladder resulted in rupture Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK of the gallbladder wall with massive bleeding from within its lumen. Control of the bleeding was achieved by a 5 minutes Pringle’s maneuver that allowed the full dissection and removal of the gallbladder. Two large drains were left in the bed of the gallbladder and post operatively some bilious discharge was seen. The minor bile leak was managed conservatively with observation only and the discharge spontaneously ceased after several days. Figure 2 A – Perforation of the gallbladder. B – the respective ulcer leading to free perforation and the causing gallstones. On exploration of the resected specimen, two large gallstones were found, and a 0.5 cm ulcer was observed in the gallbladder wall. Histopathologic examination was consistent with acute and chronic cholecystitis involving all layers of the organ that resulted in the formation of an ulcer with rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery. The patient was discharged on the fourteenth post operative day; the drains were removed during the first postoperative outpatient clinic encounter and patient recovered uneventfully. Discussion and Conclusions Spontaneous intra-cholecystic bleeding is a rare occurrence which was described in patients with gallstones [2] gallbladder malignancy [3] and patients receiving anticoagulant therapy [4].

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