So far our data have shown that at 7 days pbm the RNAi pathway-impaired
mosquitoes contained higher doses of the virus than the HWE control. We monitored the survival rate of mosquitoes for four weeks after bloodfeeding. Bloodfeeding appeared to have a beneficial effect for both Carb/dcr16 and HWE females since 50% of the insects were still alive at day 25 pbm whereas of the sugarfed control only 20% were alive at the same time point (Fig. 5). When both mosquito strains were infected with SINV-TR339EGFP (titer in the bloodmeal: 2.7 × 107 pfu/ml), their longevity was not affected in comparison to non-infected, bloodfed mosquitoes. The survival curves looked similar for Carb/dcr16 Elafibranor cell line and HWE females, indicating that SINV infection did not cause an obvious fitness cost in the RNAi-impaired mosquitoes. Figure 5 Survival rates of sugarfed, bloodfed or SINV-TR339EGFP
fed Carb/dcr16 and HWE females. Daily survival rates were monitored for 28 days among one week-old females that had received a non-infectious or SINV-TR339EGFP containing bloodmeal. Sugarfed females were used as control. Bold lines indicate 50% survival. Discussion This study PF-04929113 demonstrates for the first time a transgenic approach to impair the endogenous RNAi pathway in midgut tissue of Ae. aegypti. Following the principle of activating the RNAi pathway in specific tissues during digestion of a bloodmeal [24, 25, 30], we generated mosquitoes expressing an Aa-dcr2 targeting IR RNA in the midgut to trigger the RNAi pathway against itself. Thus, we developed a novel tool to study arbovirus-mosquito interactions at the molecular level. With current genetic tools it is not possible to generate a stable gene-knockout mutant selleck chemical of Ae. aegypti via homologous recombination (A.W.E. Franz, N. Jasinskiene, M.R. Smith, K.E. Olson and A.A. James, unpublished results). In
addition, although intrathoracic injection of dsRNA has been shown to be sufficient to manipulate the RNAi pathway in mosquitoes [2, 3, 6, 24, 25] the strategy presented here bears several advantages. 1) Injuries caused by intrathoracic injection of dsRNAs are eliminated, preventing non-specific triggering of other MK-1775 supplier immune pathways and/or reduced longevity of the insect. 2) Off-target effects caused by high doses of injected dsRNAs dispersed throughout the mosquito body are avoided. 3) Precise temporal and spatial gene targeting is ensured. Aa-dcr2 acts at the beginning of the initiation phase of the siRNAi pathway by cleaving long dsRNA molecules into ~21 bp duplexes. With the support of Aa-r2d2 these siRNA duplexes are inserted into the RISC complex . When silencing Aa-dcr2 using an IR RNA with sequence homology, we expected Aa-dcr2 mRNA levels in the cell to diminish over time, which would result in depletion of dicer2 protein.