The bacterial microbiota consists of nine core genera: Prevotella

The bacterial microbiota consists of nine core genera: Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Fusobacterium, Megasphaera,

Veillonella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus [120, 121] but little data exist about the fungal microbiota of the lungs, with the exception of Pneumocystis spp. In a recent study by Charlson et al., the fungal microbiota of the mouth and lungs in select healthy and lung transplant recipients was analyzed by ITS-based pyrosequencing [122]. The fungal distribution in the oral wash of healthy subjects was similar to that found in the study by Ghannoum et al. [82]. In the lung transplant recipients, the fungal microbiota Poziotinib order of the oral cavity was dominated by Candida, likely depending on the antibiotic and immunosuppressant Ceritinib used by these patients [122]. The bronchoalveolar lavage from lung transplant recipients showed detectable Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., or Cryptococcus spp. Because all of the transplant recipients had been treated with antibiotics and immunosuppressants, thus ablating host immune

responses and the prokaryotic milieu of the lung microbiota, this first study supports the notion that host defense, and perhaps some sort of bacterial microbiota-mediated resistance mechanisms, play a major role in keeping fungal colonization extremely low in the lungs. Numerous studies have indicated that Th17 cells and their signature cytokine IL-17A are critical to the airway’s immune response against various infections, including intracellular bacteria [123, 124] and fungi [125]. The

innate IL-17A-producing cells, γδ T cells have been shown to act on nonimmune lung cells in infected tissues Fossariinae to strengthen innate immunity by inducing the expression of antimicrobial proteins and inflammatory chemokines as CCL28, in those cells, causing the migration of IgE-secreting B cells to the infected tissues [126] as well as the proliferation of human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Additionally, IL-17A production by pulmonary γδ T cells in the early phase of tuberculosis infection stimulates neutrophil recruitment to the infected tissues [127, 128]. Neutrophils release their genomic DNA into the extracellular environment in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) [129] and ensnare invading pathogens [130, 131]. NETs were found to be induced by opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans [130] in a human in vitro study that demonstrated that NETs interact with yeast in both the single-cell form as well as the multicellular hyphal form, and incapacitate both forms via the action of the granular components of the NETs [130]. In contrast to the protective immune response exemplified by Th1 and Th17 cells [132], Th2 effector cells are considered deleterious in lung fungal infections, in part because they dampen the protective Th1-cell responses.

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