The results of this study demonstrate that the 24-item and both 1

The results of this study demonstrate that the 24-item and both 18-item versions of the RMDQ have similar responsiveness with all having superior responsiveness to the 11-item.”
“Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a medicinal herb which is rich in sesquiterpene lactones. The main sesquiterpene lactone in feverfew is parthenolide. Costunolide has been considered to be the immediate precursor JQ-EZ-05 of parthenolide. Parthenolide and costunolide levels in flowers and in leaves collected during the vegetative and generative phase of three feverfew genotypes (diploid, tetraploid and Zardband cv.) and in 2,4-D treated leaves of the diploid genotype were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS.

Parthenolide and costunolide levels showed a similar pattern in all genotypes, and were higher in flowers than in leaves. The developmental pattern of these two compounds was not the same in flowers of the different genotypes and 2,4-0 treatment increased both coordinately. In conclusion, we show that genetical, developmental and spatial factors all influence the composition of sesquiterpene lactones in feverfew. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Plants continue

to retain some advantages over combinatorial chemistry as sources of novel compounds, for example, they can generate metabolites with a complexity beyond synthetic chemistry. However, this comes with its own problems in production LY2157299 nmr and Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor synthetic modification of these compounds. Natural Products Genomics (NPG) aims to access the plants own

genomic capacity to increase yields, and modify complex bioactive metabolites, to alleviate these limitations. NPG uses a combination of gain of function mutagenesis and selection to a) mimic the evolution of novel compounds in plants, and b) to increase yields of known bioactive metabolites. This process is performed rapidly at the cell culture level in large populations of mutants. Two examples demonstrating proof of concept in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and proof of application in the medicinal plant species Catharanthus roseus, are included to illustrate the feasibility of this approach. This biotechnology platform may alter the way in which plant drug discovery is perceived by the pharmaceutical industry, and provides an alternative to combinatorial chemistry for the discovery, modification and production of highly complex bioactive molecules. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP.

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