These flows are largely dominated by ephemeral microchannel drain

These flows are largely dominated by ephemeral microchannel drainage networks in hillslope areas [8�C11]. A quantitative understanding of the flow physics check FAQ in these areas is currently limited by the lack of effective tracing techniques suitable for basin-scale observations [12]. More specifically, field experiments require environmentally resilient, non-invasive, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and low-cost measurement systems that can potentially operate in remotely-controlled or unmanned conditions. Furthermore, water turbidity, flow path heterogeneity, and natural flow obstructions impose severe constraints on sensing technologies in field studies [13,14].Traditional tracing methodologies Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are largely not capable to cope with extreme in-situ conditions, including practical logistic challenges as well as inherent flow complexity [15,16].

Most of available technologies need physical sampling to estimate the tracer concentration and do not allow Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries for continuous-time measurements [17�C19], which are crucial in understanding the evolution of hydrologic phenomena. In addition, commonly used tracers, such as isotopes, dyes, and chemicals, are not directly applicable to monitor surface hillslope processes and large-scale microchannel networks due to elaborate detection processes and dispersion issues [12,15,18,20�C25]. Most of these traditional tracing methodologies tend to infer global parameters from local measurements [15] and are not generally capable of capturing the fast evolution of processes at the watershed-scale [26].

On the other hand, feasibility studies on emerging technologies in the study of overland flows, such as tracing particles and drifting buoys, are presently not available. Moreover, the bulkiness of such devices restricts them to channel flow tracking and oceanography applications [27,28].Related research on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in fluid dynamics [29] and hydrology Anacetrapib [30] has also fueled the design and characterization of novel particle tracers for flow studies [31]. Among this class of beads, fluorescent particles show high efficiency and detectability at almost every flow velocity and water depth [32,33]. The synthesis of dedicated fluorescent particles for PIV laboratory-scale studies is reported in [32]. Fluorescent polymer nano- and microspheres have been used to study near-wall fluid motion [34] and mixing processes in multiconstituent and multiphase fluid systems [32].

In biomedicine, vision-based methodologies rely on the enhanced visibility of fluorescent corpuscles in turbid Bicalutamide media to identify and isolate proteins and pathogens in living organisms [35�C38]. In addition, controlled fluorescence microspheres are used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for tumor detection and medical imaging [39].Despite its promise, the use of fluorescent microparticles in hydrologic research is largely limited to flow studies in small-scale laboratory experiments.

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