To simulate

growth conditions in the urinary tract, K pn

To simulate

growth conditions in the urinary tract, K. pneumoniae isolates were cultured in AUM at 37° under oxygen-deprived condition. Notable difference in the growth curves was observed when K. pneumoniae clinical strains were cultured anaerobically in AUM. After 27 hours incubation, five strains with the 13-kb genomic island (NK3, NK8, NK25, NK29, NK245), showed significant growth in AUM (OD600: 0.17-0.43). In contrast, little growth (OD600: 0.04-0.06) was detected for strains that do not have the 13-kb genomic island (NTUH-K2044, NK5, NK6, NK9, CG43). The turbidities (OD600) of NK8 and NTUH-K2044 at different time points during the 27-hour incubation in AUM were also measured. Note that little growth was detected in NTUH-K2044, a strain that lacks the citrate fermentation gene cluster (Figure 3), while exponential logarithmic small molecule library screening phase growth was observed from 15 to 19 h in the NK8 strain that carries the 13-kb genomic island (Figure 4). Figure 3 Citrate gene

cluster permits fermentation growth in AUM for the NTUH-K2044 strain. NTUH-K2044, a strain that lacks the 13-kb genomic region; NTUH-K2044-F06C06, NTUH-K2044 transformed by a fosmid (F06C06) carrying the 13-kb genomic region responsible for citrate fermentation from NK8. Figure 4 Citrate gene cluster is necessary for fermentation growth in AUM for the NK8 strain. NK8 is a clinical strain carrying the same EVP4593 citrate fermentation genes as the sequenced reference strain, MGH 78578; NK8-Δcit, NK8 with the 13-kb genomic region disrupted at the promoter region. The initial OD600 of the inoculated AUM culture is 0.0005. To demonstrate that the citrate fermentation genes present in the 13-kb region have allowed alternative use of carbon and

energy source, NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase a fosmid, F06C06, which contains the entire 13-kb region from NK8, was transformed into NTUH-K2044. As shown in Figure 3, this fosmid enabled the bacteria (NTUH-K2044-F06C06) to grow anaerobically in AUM. The logarithmic growth (from 11 to 15 h) of the fosmid-transformed clone was shifted to the left and the cells reached the stationary phase earlier than that of the NK8. This may be a result of gene copy number discrepancies GW786034 manufacturer between the fosmid transformants and NK8, or a result of other genetic factors specific to the NTUH-K2044 genome. Similarly, the F06C06 fosmid sequence enabled the anaerobic growth of E. coli epi300 (Epicenter Technologies, Madison, WI) transformants in AUM (data not shown). As a control, the K. pneumoniae strains NTUH-K2044, NK8, NTUH-K2044-F06C06, and NK8-Δcit were cultured anaerobically in AUM medium prepared without citrate, all four strains showed no sign of growth in 27 hours.

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