xpression was sig namely nificantly down regulated in GC, which supports its role as Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a tumor suppressor. One NPM1 target is cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A alternate read ing frame protein. ARF protein is in volved in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic processes through inhibition of MDM2 and, therefore, stabilization of p53. NPM1 acts in the stabilization of ARF within the nu cleolus by protecting it from both proteasome dependent and proteasome independent degradation. It has been suggested that NPM1 loss of function could lead to an ac celeration of tumorigenesis owing to the destabilization and inactivation of ARF, which is known to inhibit cell proliferation through both p53 dependent and p53 independent mechanisms, in agreement with a po tential tumor suppressor role for NPM1.
The down regulation of NPM1 was associated with known distant metastasis in patients with GC, suggest ing that low levels of NPM1 protein expression may be a marker Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of poor prognosis in GC if validated in larger clinical study sets. Reduced NPM1 protein level was pre viously associated with poor outcome in some Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries subtypes of breast cancer. On the other hand, NPM1 overex pression was associated with the presence of distant metastasis in colon cancer. The role of NPM1 may depend on cellular and genetic context. The interaction between NPM1 and MYC may be one of the pathways by which the loss of NPM1 contributes to the develop ment of metastasis. The lack of a functional NPM1 was previously associated with increased levels of MYC.
MYC is a key oncogene in gastric carcinogenesis, and the overexpression or amplification of the MYC locus was previously reported in GC samples and preneoplastic gastric lesions. In our popula tion, MYC overexpression was previously associated with the presence of distant metastasis. Moreover, the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries three tumors of patients with distant metastasis pre sented MYC immunoreactivity. Here, we observed that NPM1 presented nuclear and nucleolar location. Previous studies showed that NPM1 is a predominantly nucleolar protein, however, a fraction can also be detected in the nucleoplasm. Although the sample size is small, an inverse cor relation between nucleoli immunoreactivity and the pro tein expression by Western blot was observed. This finding may Carfilzomib be in part to the key role of NPM1 in ribosome biogenesis.
In both subcellular com partments, the NPM1 immunoreactivity presented a large inter and intra tumor heterogeneity. The NPM1 expres sion heterogeneity Perifosine Akt in GC cells may complicate the devel opment of diagnostic tests or treatments targeting the NPM1. Efforts to pharmacologically target NPM1 for can cer therapy might be difficult, due to the fact that its func tion is likely to be tightly regulated to avoid the possibly detrimental consequences of its decreased or increased function. The NPM1 immunoreactivity was also heterogeneous in intestinal metaplastic, gastritis and inflammatory cells, which are commonly observed in GC patients. NPM1 may also act as an