, 2001; Groom et al, 2001) While HMX has not been linked to phy

, 2001; Groom et al., 2001). While HMX has not been linked to phytotoxicity in plants such as lettuce and barley (Robidoux et al., 2003), HMX caused reproductive problems in earthworms (Robidoux et al., 2001) and decreased hatching success by 50% in lizard eggs that were incubated in an environment near maximum environmental Selleckchem AG14699 concentrations (McMurry et al., 2012). Inhaling contaminated dust particles and swallowing contaminated ground water are possible routes of exposure for military personnel and residents living near places that manufacture or use HMX. Information on the adverse health effects of HMX is limited,

but studies in rats, mice, and rabbits indicate that HMX is harmful to the liver and central nervous system if it is swallowed or has

contact with the skin (Sunahara et al., 2009; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2010). Selleckchem ERK inhibitor HMX in soil and ground water is noticeably recalcitrant to degradation with half-lives of up to 2300 and 8000 days, respectively (Jenkins et al., 2003; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2010). Because HMX remains in the soil and ground water for long periods of time, we can conclude that microorganisms in these environments cannot remediate the compound to any large extent under natural conditions. Some studies have shown biodegradation of HMX in sewage sludge (Hawari et al., 2000; Boopathy, 2001) and cold marine sediments (Zhao et al., 2004), which are typically oxygen-poor environments. Conclusions from studies with soil-dwelling bacteria and fungi under aerobic conditions indicate that, in many instances, selection and addition of an appropriate substrate to Molecular motor enhance the growth and biodegradation of contaminants in soil by indigenous microorganisms is a superior strategy to the introduction of nonindigenous microorganisms (Axtell et al., 2000; Monteil-Rivera

et al., 2003; Crocker et al., 2006). Phytoremediation of HMX has also been examined. Aquatic plants (Bhadra et al., 2001), and several indigenous and agricultural species demonstrated no transformation of the parent compound, but only translocation into the aerial tissues (Groom et al., 2001). We have been developing a technology called Phytoruminal bioremediation, in which cool-season grasses (accustomed to high levels of nitrogen) can be seeded over explosives-containing soil to accumulate energetic compounds into the shoots (Duringer et al., 2010) for grazing by sheep, where ruminal microorganisms then complete degradation of the explosives (Fleischmann et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2008; De Lorme & Craig, 2009; Eaton et al., 2011; Perumbakkam & Craig, 2012; Eaton et al., 2013). This technique combines aspects of both in situ and ex situ bioremediation technologies by leaving the contaminated soil in situ, but utilizing grasses and grazing sheep to remove the compounds to the ex situ rumen, which is a cheap and controlled anaerobic environment.

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