Further clinical studies should utilize standard criteria for cli

Further STA-9090 chemical structure clinical studies should utilize standard criteria for clinical response and require validation in increased numbers of patients. Now, where are we? We have climbed the K2 mountain

(the individuation of useful TAA and of vaccine settings able to induce CTL response) and we are climbing the Everest mountain (the tumour immunotolerance and immune escape). Acknowledgements The author thanks all the people that have done so strong work in cancer vaccine and apologies for the many others that have not been cited in this targeted review on HNSCC immunotherapy. The author is in debt with Francesca Paolini for the help in preparing the manuscript. Work partially supported by Ministry of Health Grant. References 1. Wiemann B, Starnes CO: Coley’s toxins, tumour necrosis factor and cancer AZD1480 cost research: a historical perspective. Pharmacol Ther 1994, 64: 529–64.CrossRefPubMed 2. Monji M, Senju S, Nakatsura T, Yamada K, Sawatsubashi M, S63845 molecular weight Inokuchi A, Nishimura Y: Head and neck cancer antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002, 294: 734–741.CrossRefPubMed 3. Wu AA, Niparko KJ, Pai SI: Immunotherapy for head and neck cancer. J Biomed Sci 2008, 15: 275–89. Epub 2008 Apr 5. Review.CrossRefPubMed 4. Leibowitz

MS, Nayak JV, Ferris RL: Head and neck cancer immunotherapy: clinical evaluation. Curr Oncol Rep 2008, 10: 162–9. Review.CrossRefPubMed 5. Whiteside TL: Anti-tumour vaccines in head and neck cancer: targeting immune responses to the tumour. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2007, 7: 633–42. Review.CrossRefPubMed 6. Badaracco G, Venuti A: Human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccines in head and neck tumours. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2007, 7: 753–66. Review.CrossRefPubMed 7. Venuti A, Badaracco G, Rizzo C, Mafera B, Rahimi S, Vigili M: Presence of HPV in head and neck tumours: high prevalence in tonsillar localization. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2004, 23: 561–6.PubMed 8. Roden R, Wu TC:

How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer? Nat Rev Cancer 2006, 6: 753–76.CrossRefPubMed 9. Meissner M, Reichert TE, Kunkel M, Gooding W, Whiteside TL, Ferrone S, Seliger B: Defects in the human leukocyte antigen class I antigen processing machinery in head and neck squamous Montelukast Sodium cell carcinoma: association with clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11: 2552–2560.CrossRefPubMed 10. Dominiecki ME, Beatty GL, Pan ZK, Neeson P, Paterson Y: Tumour sensitivity to IFN-gamma is required for successful antigen-specific immunotherapy of a transplantable mouse tumour model for HPV-transformed tumours. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2005, 54: 477–488.CrossRefPubMed 11. Lopez-Albaitero A, Nayak JV, Ogino T, Machandia A, Gooding W, DeLeo AB, Ferrone S, Ferris RL: Role of antigen-processing machinery in the in vitro resistance of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cells to recognition by CTL. J Immunol 2006, 176: 3402–3409.PubMed 12.

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