Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the rootstock accessions wo

Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the rootstock accessions would be useful in order to improve citrus breeding programs. We studied genetic relationships and diversity of 51 accessions of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) and their relatives using SSR (simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) molecular markers. Twenty-one SRAP primer combinations were tested GW786034 on these accessions and relatives, producing 167 polymorphic fragments, with a mean of 8.0 and a mean polymorphism information content value of 0.47.

Seventeen SSR primers also produced 30 polymorphic fragments, with a mean of 1.4 per primer and a mean polymorphism information content value of 0.39. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average analysis using combined SSR and SRAP data showed a similarity range from 0.71 to 1.00 among the accessions. In the cluster analysis, sour orange relatives

were indicated as a separate group from sour orange. ‘Macrophylla’ and ‘Mexican lime’ were the accessions most distinct (0.71) from the others. We conclude that genetic diversity in these sour orange accessions is lower and some of them were identical.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy RG7204 and adverse reactions during initial treatment and long-term outcome between children and adolescents with Graves’ disease (GD) treated with propylthiouracil (PTU) and those treated with methimazole (MMI).

Design, setting and participants: Retrospective and collaborative study. Children and adolescents with GD were divided into group

M (MMI: n = 64) and group P (PTU: n = 69) and into four subgroups by initial dose: group M1 (< selleck inhibitor 0.75 mg/kg of MMI, n = 34), group M2 (>= 0.75 mg/kg, n = 30), group P1 (< 7.5 mg/kg of PTU, n = 24) and group P2 (>= 7.5 mg/kg, n = 45).

Main outcome measures: The duration for normalization of serum T4 on initial treatment, the incidence of adverse effects for one year and outcomes at 10 years after were compared.

Results: Mean durations for normalization of T4 (+/- SD) were 1.7 +/- 1.0 months in group M and 2.3 +/- 2.4 in group P [not significant (NS)], while the mean duration in group P1 (3.1 +/- 3.3) was significantly longer than those in the other subgroups (M1: 1.9 +/- 1.2; M2: 1.4 +/- 0.7; P2; 1.7 +/- 1.3). No major adverse reaction was observed. Minor adverse effects occurred in 25.0% of cases in group M and 31.9% in group P (NS). The incidence in group P2 (44.4%) was significantly higher than those in group M1 (20.6%) and group P1 (8.3%). Remission rates did not differ between the MMI-treated group (35.0%, n = 20) and PTU-treated group (50.0%, n = 40).

Conclusions: PTU may not be suitable for initial use in children and adolescents with GD, even with the risk of major adverse reactions such as liver failure excluded.”
“Advanced backcross families derived from Oryza sativa cv MR219/O.

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