Nevertheless, while the accomplishment of this ratio could induce

Nevertheless, while the accomplishment of this ratio could induce these benefits and reduce the energy deficit it is unknown whether athletes can tolerate high protein ingestion and perform high intensity exercise without gastro-intestinal disturbances. To avoid these problems, it is very recommendable that athletes perform a nutritional training before to the event ingesting small and frequent amounts Dibutyryl-cAMP of macronutrients and fluids during training sessions. This training may enhance the response of the digestive system during ultra-endurance events and

reduce the risk of gastro-intestinal distress during longer events in hard environment conditions. Acknowledgements The present study was funded by the National Institute of Physical Education (INEFC) and by the University of Zürich (Switzerland). The authors gratefully acknowledge the participation of the athletes in this study and the generous support of

Polar Ibérica (Spain), RPM Events, and Research Group of Applied Nutrition, Department of Nutrition and Bromatology (University of Barcelona). We are indebted to Dave Clamp for his editorial assistance. We would also like to thank Víctor Cervera for his technical support. References 1. Zaryski C, Smith DJ: selleck inhibitor Training principles and issues for ultra-endurance athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep 2005, 4:165–170.PubMed 2. Laursen PB, Rhodes EC: Physiological analysis of a high intensity ultraendurance event. Strength & Conditioning Journal 1999, 21:26. 3. Neumayr G, Pfister R, Mitterbauer G, Gaenzer

H, Sturm W, Hoertnagl H: Heart rate response to ultraendurance cycling. Br J Sports Med 2003, 37:89–90.PubMedCrossRef 4. Laursen PB, Ahern SM, Herzig PJ, Shing CM, Jenkins DG: Physiological responses to repeated bouts of high-intensity ultraendurance cycling-a field study case report. SPTBN5 J Sci Med Sport 2003, 6:176–186.PubMedCrossRef 5. Bescós R, Rodriguez FA, Iglesias X, Knechtle B, Benítez A, Marina M, Padulles JM, Vazquez J, Torrado P: Physiological demands of cyclists during an ultra-endurance relay race: a field study report. Chin J Physiol 2011, 54:339–346.PubMed 6. Laursen PB, Rhodes EC: Factors affecting performance in an ultraendurance triathlon. Sports Med 2001, 31:195–209.PubMedCrossRef 7. Peters EM: Nutritional aspects in ultra-endurance exercise. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2003, 6:427–434.PubMed 8. White JA, Ward C, Nelson H: Ergogenic demands of a 24 hour check details cycling event. Br J Sports Med 1984, 18:165–171.PubMedCrossRef 9. Havemann L, Goedecke JH: Nutritional practices of male cyclists before and during an ultraendurance event. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008, 18:551–566.PubMed 10. Knechtle B, Enggist A, Jehle T: Energy turnover at the Race Across AMerica (RAAM) – a case report. Int J Sports Med 2005, 26:499–503.PubMedCrossRef 11. Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S: American College of Sports Medicine position stand.

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