Recently, no association has been found between amyloid plaque load
and pathological glucose tolerance in a large prospective longitudinal neuropathological study.58 Fatigue and memory problems are often reported in patients with OSA. Neuropsychological testing may reveal a retrieval deficit of episodic memory with normal intact maintenance, recognition, and forgetfulness, as well as a decreased overall performance in procedural memory, and impairment of specific working memory capabilities despite normal short-term memory. Hippocampal volume may also be reduced in OSA.59 Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has been shown to improve cognitive function in OSA.60 Memory function may also be influenced by hormonal alterations, eg, during pregnancy and menopause. Pregnant women were found to have mild memory alterations in regard to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory tasks compared with non-pregnant women.61 In menopausal women, both estradiol
and testosterone levels were related to semantic and verbal episodic memory performance.62,63 In both pregnancy and menopause, the impairment of memory performance is normally mild and does not meet the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Memory deficits due to Regorafenib mental disorders Cognitive symptoms are associated with a number of mental diseases, eg, depression,64 post-traumatic stress disorder,65 or schizophrenia.66 Mild psychiatric symptoms and subjective memory complaints require neuropsychological tests to objectively assess the amount of impairment. Mood disorders in the elderly are often accompanied by cognitive deficits independent of AD; however, depression may accompany Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical AD as an early symptom, possibly complicating the diagnosis. In a recent study, deficits in a broad range of cognitive domains, including semantic and episodic memory, were related to depression in elderly patients.64 Depressive patients also suffer from structural abnormalities Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as reduced hippocampus
volume, which may be reversible during remission.67 The AD biomarker CSF β42 has also been found to be decreased in elderly patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder, pointing to an overlap of depression and AD that has not been fully elucidated.27 Traumatic or toxic causes of memory AV-951 impairment Traumatic or toxic causes of memory impairment comprise traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebral hypoxia, eg, due to cardiac arrest, and impairment related to alcohol or drugs. TBI survivors often suffer from long-term memory impairment as a consequence of the insult. Mild TBI leads to an impairment in declarative memory, compared with controls, in the post-acute phase within 6 weeks after the trauma; memory function was related to medial temporal lobe activation in a functional MRI paradigm.68 Even 1 year after mild TBI, cognitive deficits and memory problems may be found in affected persons as a long-term consequence.