24) However, the indication for surgical correction of mild to moderate functional MR is still a controversial issue. As a surgical procedure, STA-4783 molecular weight mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement is also controversial.25-29) NEED FOR SUBMITRAL APPROACH Undersized annuloplasty has been widely accepted as a simple and at the same tine effective procedure.30),31) However it sometimes fails to ameliorate MR in patient with severely tethered mitral leaflet.32) A simple annuloplasty sometimes
worsen the tethering of posterior leaflet and it induces recurrent MR33-36) and has a possibility to induce functional mitral stenosis.37-39) With these facts, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical additional procedures should be considered for patients with severely tethered valve or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dilated left ventricle. SUBMITRAL PROCEDURE Several submitral targeted surgical procedures for functional MR have been produced (Fig. 4).40-45) Relocation of PMs is effective for improving the mitral tethering; however, relocation of PM head for anterior leaflet alone has a possibility to remain the tethering of posterior leaflet. To overcome this problem, novel surgical procedure for functional MR named “papillary heads Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical optimization” has been developed
(Fig. 5). In this method, the PM head for posterior leaflet was connected to the PM head for anterior leaflet by using a polytetrafluoroethylene suture in each PM. After annuloplasty by a semi-rigid ring, its arms were re-suspended towards the mid-anterior mitral annulus and the sutures were passed through it and tied after the length adjustment. This method aims physiological relocation of both PM head for anterior leaflet and for posterior leaflet towards
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical physiological position to avoid residual tethering of both leaflet after annuloplasty and prevention of further left ventricular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical remodeling by the sutures. Fig. 4 Surgical procedures for subvalvular apparati or left ventricle. Undersized annuloplasty sometimes fails to ameliorate mitral regurgitation (MR) in patient with severely tethered mitral leaflet and worsen the tethering of posterior leaflet, resulting GSK461364 concentration recurrent … Fig. 5 Papillary heads optimization method. In Papillary heads optimization method, the papillary muscle (PM) head for posterior leaflet was connected to the PM head for anterior leaflet by using a PTFE suture in each PM. After annuloplasty by a semi-rigid ring, … VISUALIZING THE SUBVALVULAR STRUCTURE In the setting of submitral-targeted surgery such as papillary heads optimization, a detailed understanding of the submitral apparatus is essential for successful repair and for evaluating results of surgery. Adequate imaging is necessary for precise quantitative evaluation of the mitral valve structure. Three dimensional TEE has become widely available recently and it plays an essential role in understanding the status of the mitral valve apparatus.