The PANI was prepared through oxidative polymerization methods an

The PANI was prepared through oxidative polymerization methods and doped with HCl, PTSA, DBSA, LY2090314 concentration and LA and then characterized through different methods like conductivity measurement, UV, X-ray, DSC, TGA, and SEM. It was found that the properties of doped PANI depend on the type and molecular size of the dopant. With the increase in dopant chain length, the crystallinity is decreased, whereas the d-spacing, interchain separation, and solubility are increased. The bond formation of water molecules with the backbone nitrogen of the polymers is much less in presence of aromatic dopants when compared with those of inorganic or

aliphatic dopants. All the doped polyanilines under investigation do not decompose up to 500 degrees C. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 3135-3140, 2009″
“The first order unified linear instability analysis (ULISA) of the governing equation for evolutions of surfaces and interfaces under the capillary, electromigration, and elastostatic selleck chemical forces including the thermomigration (Soret effect) is developed very recently by the

author. In the present application of the theory, the concurrent effects of uniaxial applied stresses and the electrostatic field on the sidewall morphological evolution of a single crystal thin metallic film are explored by dynamic computer simulations by taking the surface drift diffusion anisotropy fully into account. These computer experiments, which are supported by ULISA, clearly show that only the applied elastic compressive stresses are primary agents responsible for the morphological instability of the surface undulations through the elastic dipole tensor interactions see more but not the uniaxial tension loading in thin solid films. It is also demonstrated that these morphological instabilities manifested themselves as formations of the surface cracks and thus one may fully control the roughness. To do that, one needs to select crystal orientations properly with respect to

the applied field so that a counteraction of the applied electrostatic fields (healing effect) is created above well defined threshold levels of electromigration. On the contrary to the healing effects, the improper selection of crystal orientations may drastically enhance the instability and eventually may cause catastrophic interconnect failure. At large normalized surface undulation amplitudes ((a) over bar >= 0.20), the drastic reductions in the decay rate constants (i.e., the strain relaxation rate) are detected in the nonlinear uniaxial tension regime compared to the ULISA theory regardless of the intensity of the normalized stress by analyzing the data obtained from the computer simulations. This situation is contrary to the results deduced from the low to moderate normalized amplitude ((a) over bar <= 0.10) measurements, where one finds that the decay rate constant closely obeys the prediction of the ULISA theory even for very high stress intensities.

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