above results, we now can scientifically develop new plastic blends and design optimum processing conditions for various automotive applications. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 1593-1599, 2011″
“P>The structures, evolution and functions of alcohol dehydrogenase gene families and their products have been scrutinized for half a century. Our understanding of the enzyme structure and catalytic activity of plant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-P) selleckchem is based on the vast amount of information available for its animal counterpart. The probable origins of the enzyme from a simple beta-coil and eventual emergence from a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase have been well described. There is compelling evidence that the small ADH gene families found in plants today are the survivors of multiple rounds Bafilomycin A1 of gene expansion and contraction. To the probable original function of their products in the terminal reaction of anaerobic fermentation have been added roles in yeast-like aerobic fermentation and the production of characteristic scents that act to attract animals that serve as pollinators or agents of seed dispersal and to protect against herbivores.”
“The aim of the present research was to evaluate
the potential of galactosylated low molecular weight chitosan (Gal-LMWC) nanoparticles bearing positively charged anticancer, doxorubicin (DOX) for hepatocyte targeting. The chitosan from crab shell was depolymerized, and the lactobionic acid was coupled with LMWC using carbodiimide chemistry. The depolymerized and galactosylated polymers were characterized. Two types of Gal-LMWC(s) with variable degree of substitution were employed to prepare the nanoparticles CAL101 using ionotropic gelation with pentasodium tripolyphosphate anions. Factors affecting nanoparticles formation were discussed. The nanoparticles were characterized by
transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy and found to be spherical in the size range 106-320 nm. Relatively higher percent DOX entrapment was obtained for Gal-LMWC(s) nanoparticles than for LMWC nanoparticles. A further increase in drug entrapment was found with nanoparticles prepared by Gal-LMWC with higher degree of substitution. A hypothesis which correlates the ionic concentration of DOX in nanoparticles preparation medium and percent DOX entrapment in cationic polymer has been proposed to explain the enhanced DOX entrapment. In-vitro drug release study demonstrated an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. The targeting potential of the prepared nanoparticles was assessed by in vitro cytotoxicity study using the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG(2)) expressing the ASGP receptors on their surfaces.