The strained suspension was centrifuged again and the pellet used

The strained suspension was centrifuged again and the pellet used to produce mycelia and spherules. To grow mycelia, arthroconidia YH25448 mouse were washed 2 times with glucose-yeast extract (GYE) media and 2×106 spores/ml were incubated in 250 ml flat-bottom Erlenmeyer flasks (Corning) in 50 ml GYE media. Four flasks were cultured in a 30°C incubator without shaking for 5 days. To grow spherules, arthroconidia were washed 2 times in modified Converse media [12]. The spores were inoculated at 4×106 arthroconidia/ml into a 250 ml baffled Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 ml of modified Converse media. Eight identical flasks were set up and grown on a shaker at 160 rpm, in 14% CO2 at 42°C. Four flasks were harvested

2 days after inoculation and the remaining four flasks after 8 days. The spherules did not rupture and release endospores within that time in this culture system. Inhibition of growth with nitisinone Nitisinone, 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1, 3 dione, a potent specific inhibitor

of 4-HPPD was purchased from Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, Sweden. A stock solution of 30 mg/ml was made in 0.2 M NaOH. Nitisinone was added at several concentrations to glucose yeast extract media (GYE) or modified converse media in the presence of 2×106 spores/ml in a 15 ml round-bottom tissue culture tubes (BD Falcon). The culture was grown as described above for mycelial and spherule growth. The control tubes contained equal amounts of 0.2 M NaOH without Nitisinone. For microscopy, 1% formaldehyde was added to the PX-478 supplier culture overnight and the tubes were centrifuged 10,000 rpm for 10 min. The pellet was re-suspended in GSK3326595 clinical trial Lactophenol Aniline blue stain (Remel) and examined microscopically. RNA isolation C. immitis mycelia were harvested by straining the media from four cultures through a 40 μM nylon cell strainer (BD Falcon). The mycelia were picked up from the cell strainer using a sterile disposable loop (BD Falcon) and dropped in a 2 ml ZR BashingBead lysis tube with 0.5 mm beads (Zymoresearch) and 0.5 ml Qiazol reagent (Qiagen). The tubes were arranged in Oxymatrine a pre-cooled Tissuelyzer II adapter (Qiagen) and mycelia was disrupted by shaking

at 50 Hz for 25 min. Spherules in Converse media were harvested from four 2 day cultures and four 8 day cultures. The cell concentration was determined by counting the spherules in Lactophenol Aniline blue stain. The media was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min at 4°C. Qiazol (Qiagen) was added to the cell pellet at 4×106 spherules/ml and 0.5 ml of the mixture added to a 2 ml ZR BashingBead lysis tube with 0.5 mm beads (Zymoresearch). Total RNA was purified from mycelia and spherule samples (4 replicates/condition) using the RNeasy Microarray tissue mini-kit (Qiagen) in a Qiacube machine (Qiagen). If necessary RNA was concentrated or re-purified using RNeasy Minelute Cleanup kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

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