This method is operated at a high temperature of 1,000°C, and it

This method is operated at a high temperature of 1,000°C, and it depends buy SN-38 on the source of hydrocarbon gas, limiting

its range of applications. Therefore, a low-temperature process for synthesizing graphene is required for graphene applications. Hence, the plasma CVD system is effective for synthesizing a high-quality graphene film by deposition at low temperature. Kim et al. used microwave plasma CVD to synthesize graphene films on nickel foil at a low temperature of 750°C [20], and surface wave plasma CVD has been used to synthesize graphene conductive electrodes on a large scale at low temperatures in the range of 300°C to 400°C [21, 22]. However, these approaches require expensive equipment, produce multilayer graphene eFT-508 ic50 with low transparency, and form many defects that suffer from ion bombardment. In this work, plasma-assisted thermal CVD was utilized to grow a monolayer of graphene at low temperature. Unlike the aforementioned plasma-based CVD methods, plasma-assisted thermal CVD is low-cost and forms a monolayer of graphene with few defects on Cu foil without the ion bombardment effect. Additionally, the plasma emission spectra of the plasma-assisted thermal CVD system were obtained to elucidate the

mechanism of graphene growth. Methods A-769662 concentration Throughout the experiments, plasma-assisted thermal CVD was used to synthesize graphene films on polycrystalline copper foils with various hydrogen (H2) flow rates from 5 to 20 sccm at a temperature of as low as 600°C. Figure 1a presents an apparatus that comprises two parallel electrodes, a direct current (DC) pulsed power supply, optical fiber, spectrum analyzer, and a hot furnace. This work develops a plasma-assisted thermal CVD system for generating the plasma that is utilized in the low-temperature growth of graphene at a DC power of 200

W with a pulsing frequency of 20 kHz. The pulse generator can maintain stable plasma. Raman spectroscopy verified the structure of the graphene films to which an excitation laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm with a power at the focused spot of 1.2 mW was applied. A spectrum AZD9291 ic50 analyzer was used to obtain the plasma emission spectra through an optical fiber. Figure 1 An apparatus that comprises two parallel electrodes. (a) Plasma-assisted thermal CVD system and measurement of plasma emission spectra. (b) H2 plasma generated between two parallel electrodes. Graphene films were grown on a 25-μm-thick copper foil (99.8%, Alfa Aesar, item no.13382, Ward Hill, MA, USA) using the proposed plasma-assisted thermal CVD system by a method similar to one described elsewhere [23]. Prior to growth, the copper foil was electropolished with 100 mL of phosphoric acid and 50 mL of deionized (DI) water in a homemade electrochemical bath, and a voltage of 3 V was applied for 30 s. Thereafter, the copper foil was rinsed in DI water with sonication before being dried in a nitrogen atmosphere for 5 min.

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