thuringiensis [53, 55–57] Further support for our model can be d

thuringiensis [53, 55–57]. Further support for our model can be derived from recent work demonstrating that ingestion of non-pathogenic bacteria can induce the VS-4718 nmr immune response of lepidopteran larvae [58]. This suggests that the microbiota are capable of altering the immune status of larvae without crossing the gut epithelium and could thus influence the host response to pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, Ericsson et al. [42] reported that

reductions in the larval immune response following ingestion of a low dose of B. thuringiensis correlated with lower susceptibility to subsequent ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Taken together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that the host innate immune response contributes to selleck chemicals pathogenesis and killing by B. thuringiensis. We cannot rule out other factors that might co-vary with innate immunity. Many pharmaceutical

inhibitors have non-specific effects on animals that may confound interpretation of the results [59–61]. While eicosanoids mediate various cellular reactions responsible for clearing bacterial infections from hemolymph circulation and are induced in Lepidoptera in response to bacterial challenge [62–64], they also have other physiological functions including ion transport and reproduction learn more [60, 65]. Thus, it is possible that the compounds we used have a direct effect on the health of the insect gut or affect another cellular process that, in turn, influences larval susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. Nevertheless, it is notable that we observed significantly delayed mortality with the antioxidant glutathione and

in the presence of diverse compounds that suppress the synthesis of eicosanoids. The immune-suppressive compounds inhibit a variety of enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis, and all delay killing by B. thuringiensis, reducing the probability that the biological effects are due to a secondary activity of the pharmaceuticals. Moreover, peptidoglycan fragments, which induce the innate immune response, caused more rapid mortality in insects that had been treated with antibiotics. Similarly, there is growing evidence that diverse classes of antibiotics, including the four used Selleckchem Atezolizumab in this study, have immunomodulatory effects in addition to their antimicrobial activity [66]. While the immunomodulatory mechanisms of antibiotics are not fully understood, there is evidence that some directly reduce the host immune response, whereas others limit the release of immune-inducing bacterial components [67]. Further experiments are needed to fully differentiate the extents to which the reduction in susceptibility to B. thuringiensis when larvae are reared on antibiotics is due to the absence of gut bacteria or an immuno-suppressive effect of antibiotics. In the latter case, the re-introduction of bacteria, such as Enterobacter sp.

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