“The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as those of 18 selleck inhibitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12-dioxin like (DL)-PCBs, were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in Catalonia (Spain) in November-December 2008. A total of 65 composite samples, belonging to various food groups were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were subsequently estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, teenagers, adults, and seniors, which were in turn divided according to
sex. The highest dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs corresponded to fish and seafood (28.0%), dairy products (15.4%), and oils and fats (10.6%), while that of PCBs corresponded to fish and seafood p38 MAPK apoptosis (58.6%), and dairy products (8.9%). In contrast, the lowest contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs corresponded to vegetables, fruits and pulses. Concerning the sum of PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs, the current total intake expressed
in pg WHO-TEQ/kg per day (0.60) showed a notable decreasing trend with respect to those found in previous surveys performed also in Catalonia in 2000 (3.51) and 2006 (1.12 pg/kg per day). The current dietary intake of PCDDs plus DL-PCBs is similar or lower than that recently reported in studies performed in a number of regions and countries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Social monogamy is common among birds, while genetic monogamy is supposed to be rare. I have investigated the genetic mating system of the Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus in which, as in seabirds and most other long-lived and socially monogamous birds, extra-pair paternity (EPP) is typically rather infrequent. The parentage of 79 chicks from 30 broods was determined based on the analysis of six microsatellite markers. In this study population, evidence of allelic inconsistencies between putative parents and chicks as a result of both EPP and intraspecific brood parasitism (ISBP) was found in 43% of nests . Extra-pair paternity was detected
in 33% (10/30) of broods, and 20% (16/79) of all nestlings were sired by extra-pair males. In addition, 9% (7/79) of chicks out of five nests (17%) were not ALK activation the offspring of either member of the pair, indicating ISBP. These findings reveal a moderate rate of ISBP and a high rate of EPP in the Black-headed Gull compared with other related species and shows that the Black-headed Gulls successfully participate in extra-pair copulations.”
“The across-plane electrical conductivity of the proton-conducting SrZr0.95Y0.05O3 -aEuro parts per thousand delta thin films fabricated by chemical solution deposition on single-crystalline ZrO2 doped by 10 mol% of Y2O3 (YSZ) substrates was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The average grain size of the films was found to increase considerably with thermal treatment.