We found that only dlPFC rTMS significantly affected performance, with rTMS of right dlPFC decreasing accuracy on delayed-recall trials, and rTMS of left and right dlPFC decreasing and enhancing accuracy, respectively, on delayed-recognition trials. These findings confirm that the dlPFC plays an important role in memory-guided response,
and suggest that the nature of this role varies depending on the processes-required for making a response. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Historically dilation of the female urethra was thought to be of value in the treatment of a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms. Subsequent work has more accurately classified these complaints as parts of various diseases or syndromes in which scant FHPI datasheet data exist to support the use of dilation. Yet Medicare reimbursement for www.selleckchem.com/products/SP600125.html urethral dilation remains generous and we describe practice patterns regarding female urethral dilation to characterize a potential quality of care issue.
Materials and Methods: Health care use by females treated with urethral
dilation was compiled using a complementary set of databases. Data sets were examined for relevant inpatient, outpatient and emergency room services for women of all ages.
Results: Female urethral dilation is common (929 per 100,000 patients) and is performed almost as much as treatment for male urethral stricture disease. Approximately 12% of these patients are subjected to costly studies such as retrograde urethrography. The overall national costs for treatment exceed $61 million per year and have increased 10% to 17% a year since 1994. A diagnosis of female urethral stricture increases health care expenditures by more than $1,800 per individual per year in insured populations.
Conclusions: Urethral dilation is still common despite the fact that true female urethral stricture is an uncommon entity. This scenario is likely secondary to the persistence of the mostly discarded practice of dilating the unstrictured female urethra for a wide variety of complaints despite the lack of data suggesting that it improves lower
urinary tract symptoms.”
“Hemispheric differences in the use of memory retrieval cues were examined in a continuous recognition design, using visual half-field presentation to bias the Vinorelbine Tartrate processing of test words. A speeded recognition task revealed general accuracy and response time advantages for items whose test presentation was biased to the left hemisphere. A second experiment recorded event-related brain potentials in the same design and replicated these behavioral effects, but found no electrophysiological support for the hypothesis that test words biased to the left hemisphere elicit superior recognition. Instead, successful retrieval was accompanied by memory components of identical strength regardless of test field.