Viruses and bacteria use chimerism and horizontal gene transfer to pick up genes from their hosts, and adopting cytokine genes Temsirolimus is perfectly possible; many pathogens contain host genes such as cytokines [118, 119]. A strictly instructive model for phenotype decisions would require hard-coded programs that deal with all pathogens in the appropriate way. Consequently, a single mistake in Th-cell phenotype would jeopardize survival of
the host if Th-cell phenotype decision-making relied exclusively on instruction. Given the fact that organisms are constantly combatting fast(er)-evolving pathogens, it is hard to see how this model could lead to durable protection of the host. Furthermore, the concept of immunological memory seems redundant in a system relying largely on instructive signals – making adaptive immune responses little different from the innate immunity. Indeed, how can a correct
Th-cell phenotype be chosen? Due to stochasticity, all possible Th-cell phenotypes tend to be generated in a response to any type of infection, and instructive signals seem to be easily subverted by pathogens in a number of ways. Generating a proper response in the presence of such inconsistent signals is challenging. One solution to this conundrum is to utilize the effectiveness of an immune response to choose the correct phenotype, that is, ‘success-driven feedback . This hypothesis states that Th cells have some way find more Tau-protein kinase to judge their success in combatting a pathogen. A success-driven
feedback mechanism would allow incorrect phenotypes to be shut down, while correct phenotypes are propagated. Such a mechanism would resemble quorum sensing that limits Th-cell expansion as discussed earlier, but then in a phenotype-specific manner. In that sense, the success-driven feedback concept is a specific type of immune homoeostasis [121, 122]. Although success-driven feedback is an attractive concept, there is little evidence for it and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The most obvious parameter for evaluation success is antigen clearance. If the antigen is cleared, the response is successful; if not, this particular phenotype is apparently not appropriate and should be shut down. There are several potential mechanisms that could effectuate this type of feedback. For instance, IL10 expression by cells that are activated for longer periods of time could be one such mechanism (Figure 3). If IL10 expression by Th cells were in some way antigen dependent, this could function as a success-driven feedback, although this would require IL10 to function in a mostly autocrine fashion.