Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harv

Follow-up at regular intervals included clinical evaluation, Harvey-Bradshaw index, laboratory tests, colonoscopy and small, bowel radiology when appropriate.

Results: The perioperative mortality was nit. Early postoperative complications were: wound infection (N=4), anastomotic teak (N=1), reoperated, nipple ischemia (N=1) reoperated, enterocutaneous fistula click here (N=1). Clinical recurrence in the neoterminal ileum was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 11%, 20%, 23% and 24%. Eleven patients (19%) were reoperated for recurrence in the neoterminal ileum

after median 96 months follow-up. The cumulative reoperation rate was after 1, 3, 4 and 5 years: 4%, 13%, 13% and 16%, respectively.

Conclusion: The low clinical and surgical recurrence rate in the neoterminal ileum may suggest a protective effect of the neosphincter on postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease. This result should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. (c) 2009 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that converts adenosines to inosines in both coding and noncoding RNA transcripts. It is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine NCT-501 deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which exist throughout the body but are most prevalent in the central nervous system. Inosines exhibit properties that are most similar to those

of guanosines. As a result, ADAR-mediated editing can post-transcriptionally alter codons, introduce or remove splice sites, or affect the base pairing of the RNA molecule with itself

or with other RNAs. A-to-I editing is a mechanism that regulates and diversifies the transcriptome, but the full biological significance of ADARs is not understood. ADARs are highly conserved EPZ-6438 across vertebrates and are essential for normal development in mammals. Aberrant ADAR activity has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, viral infections and autoimmune disorders. ADARs have been shown to contribute to disease pathologies by editing of glutamate receptors, editing of serotonin receptors, mutations in ADAR genes, and by other mechanisms, including recently identified regulatory roles in microRNA processing. Advances in research into many of these diseases may depend on an improved understanding of the biological functions of ADARs. Here, we review recent studies investigating connections between ADAR-mediated RNA editing and human diseases.”
“OBJECTIVE: To determine whether avoiding intra-abdominal irrigation at cesarean delivery will decrease rates of intraoperative and postoperative gastrointestinal disturbance without increasing postoperative morbidity.

METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing cesarean delivery. Patients were randomized to irrigation after closure of the hysterotomy compared with no irrigation.

The surgery was performed in 211 obese between May 1999 and Decem

The surgery was performed in 211 obese between May 1999 and December 2000. This prospective study evaluated excess weight loss (%EWL) and body mass index (BMI) during the period. We considered surgical treatment failure if %EWL was less than 50 %.

We followed 54.9 % of the population (116 patients). Patients’ %EWL was 67.6 +/- 14.9 % 1 year after surgery, 72.6 +/- 14.9 % after 2 years, 69.7 +/- 15.1 % after 5 years, 66.8 +/- 7.6 % after 8 years, and 67.1 +/- 11.9 % after 10 years selleck chemicals postoperatively. Surgical treatment

failure occurred in 16 patients (14.6 %) over 10 years.

B-RYGBP is a good technique to promote and maintain weight loss 10 years after surgery with low failure rate.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of modified electric vacuum aspiration (mEVA) and sharp curettage (SC) for treatment of incomplete abortion.

Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between 1 March 2005 and 15 December 2009. Ninety-four women with incomplete abortion were randomly allocated

into two groups, group A (n = 47) underwent mEVA and group B (n = 47) underwent SC. The procedures were performed using the paracervical signaling pathway block with 20 mL of lidocaine. Successful management and complication were assessed. Successful management was defined as complete uterine evacuation with no need for the second surgical procedure.

Results: There were Q-VD-Oph clinical trial differences in women characteristics between groups. The successful rate of management was 100% for both groups. However, the operative time and estimated blood loss were less in the mEVA group than in the SC group. Severe pain was significantly less prevalent in group A than group B. Suspected endometritis was found in two (4.3%) patients in each group.

Conclusions: The efficacy of mEVA was the

same as that of SC in successful management of incomplete abortion, but pain was experienced more often in the SC group.”
“We examined epidemiological aspects and bacterial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from intensive care unit (ICU) patient samples. During a 10 month period (from June 2006 to March 2007), 812 samples of blood, urine and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from 553 hospitalized patients, in ICU wards, including pediatric surgical, neonatal, adult surgical I, adult surgical II, general pediatrics, neurosurgical I, neurosurgical II, and internal medical, were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics for bacteria isolates was determined by the E-test method. The internal medicine ICU with 28.7% admissions gave the largest contribution. Coagulase negative staphylococci at frequencies of 66.7% and 36.5% and E. coli at 20.9% were the bacteria most frequently isolated from the blood, CSF and urine samples, respectively. Samples taken from patients 20-40 years old were the most frequent (32.2%), while the group of patients over sixty years contributed least (18.5%).

Methods 155 cancer patients who were about to begin their first s

Methods 155 cancer patients who were about to begin their first session of radiotherapy were included. HRQoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess whether there was a violation of the assumption of invariance.

Results A satisfactory single construct (Functioning HRQoL) measurement model was found and two violations of invariance were identified. Irrespective of patients’ Functioning HRQoL,

older patients reported worse physical functioning and patients who had received treatment prior to radiotherapy reported worse emotional functioning than we would otherwise expect.

Conclusions In the present study, accounting for measurement bias lead to a substantial improvement in the overall fit of the model. By SB525334 ignoring the bias, we would have concluded that the model fit was ATR inhibitor unsatisfactory. The findings underline the importance of investigating measurement invariance in scales designed for heterogeneous samples.”
“In this paper, the vacancy-pair diffusion mechanism in cubic materials is revisited with emphasis on the limits of the ratio of the tracer diffusion coefficients to demonstrate the operation of this mechanism. The vacancy-pair mechanism puts very strict upper and lower bounds on this ratio. Extensive high precision Monte Carlo simulation is used to

calculate tracer correlation factor, ratios of tracer diffusivities, and percolation effects (in mixed compounds). The three major cubic lattices-NaCl, CsCl, and zinc blende structures-are analyzed, and correct limits for the ratio of the tracer diffusivities are found to be 5.6, 11.2, and 2.6, respectively. For the case of the CsCl structure correlation factors are redetermined using the matrix method to obtain good agreement with the Monte Carlo results. Self-diffusion

in the compound semiconductors PbSe (NaCl structure) InSb, GaSb, CdTe, and HgCdTe (zinc blende structure) is reanalyzed. It is shown that the vacancy-pair mechanism is unlikely to contribute to self-diffusion in CdTe and HgCdTe but it remains a valid possibility for self-diffusion in PbSe, InSb, and Givinostat supplier GaSb.”
“Deglutition syncope refers to an uncommon cause of neurally mediated syncope induced by swallowing. We briefly review a case of a 66-year-old man who experienced recurrent syncope episodes during ingestion of beverages, mainly water. Our investigations documented several short asymptomatic episodes of asystole and one prolonged complete atrioventricular block of around 15 seconds associated with the syncopal events, during swallowing. Barium x-ray and manometry evaluations revealed only a nonspecific esophageal dysmotility. An underlying sick-sinus syndrome was found on electrophysiologic study. A DDD pacemaker implantation was performed leading to total disappearance of patient’s symptoms.

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute

One was a case of infection with Plasmodium falciparum with acute and convalescent microscopic agglutination test titers for Leptospira serovar icterohaemorrhagiae of 1:200 and 1:1600, respectively. The other was a case of infection with Plasmodium vivax that seroconverted to a titer of 1:3200 for Leptospira serovar batavia. Both patients finally improved with cephalosporins and doxycycline after no significant clinical/biochemical improvement with antimalarials stand-alone. It is proposed that febrile patients with hepato-renal dysfunction should be considered possible co-infection of malaria

and leptospirosis.”
“Echinococcus alveolaris (E. alveolaris) (multi-localaris) is a parasitic agent that commonly affects the liver and poses as a solid mass. In contrast to Echnicoccus granulosus, E. alveolaris tends to invade adjacent structures rather than displace this website and compress them. Haematogenous dissemination to other organs such as the lungs, brain, or bone is rare. In this case, we report on a 34-year old woman with a history of liver segmentectomy due to E. alveolaris infestation and the disease selleck screening library disseminated to the lungs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed

multiple opacities and mixed signal intensities in the lungs, mimicking metastatic disease. The biopsy proved that the lesions were a result of metastasis of E. alveolaris.”
“Background: Screening Library Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, is driven by cells with neural stem (NS) cell characteristics. Using derivation methods developed for NS cells, it is possible to expand tumorigenic stem cells continuously in vitro. Although these glioblastoma-derived neural stem (GNS) cells are highly similar to normal NS cells, they harbor mutations typical of gliomas and initiate authentic tumors following orthotopic xenotransplantation. Here, we analyzed GNS and NS cell transcriptomes to identify gene expression alterations underlying the disease phenotype.

Methods: Sensitive measurements of gene expression were

obtained by high-throughput sequencing of transcript tags (Tag-seq) on adherent GNS cell lines from three glioblastoma cases and two normal NS cell lines. Validation by quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 82 differentially expressed genes across a panel of 16 GNS and 6 NS cell lines. The molecular basis and prognostic relevance of expression differences were investigated by genetic characterization of GNS cells and comparison with public data for 867 glioma biopsies.

Results: Transcriptome analysis revealed major differences correlated with glioma histological grade, and identified misregulated genes of known significance in glioblastoma as well as novel candidates, including genes associated with other malignancies or glioma-related pathways.

9% during the second phase, respectively) (+)-Glaucine (12 5 and

9% during the second phase, respectively). (+)-Glaucine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) showed strong activity in three animal models, too. The activity of these compounds was also observed following oral administration in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.”
“Removal and changing an intra-uterine device (IUD)

involves good history taking, a proper examination and appropriate experience in fitting IUDs.

We present a case of a woman who had two insertions of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) which was diagnosed only at hysteroscopy when she presented with the spontaneous expulsion of a vertical stem of one of the devices.

This is a unique case where two LNG-IUS were inserted in error and hence it teaches the clinicians the importance of good training and being aware of the possibility of the missing thread which deserves further investigations especially when such LY3023414 datasheet cases are encountered in a busy general practice.”
“Amniotic fluid (AF) represents heterologous cell types and a specific group of these cells show high growth rate and multipotent characteristics. The aim of the present study was to culture and fully characterize the putative stem cell population isolated from caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell population could be successfully isolated from the caprine amniotic fluid. In vitro expanded caprine amniotic fluid derived

mesenchymal AC220 concentration stem cells (cAF-MSCs) showed high proliferation ratio with a doubling time of 33.1 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. Relative transcript abundance of CD-73, CD-90 and CD-105 surface markers were analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR and their respective proteins were localized through immunocytochemistry, however cAF-MSCs were found negative for haematopoietic marker CD-34. When exposed to corresponding induction condition, cAF-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages

which was confirmed through von Kossa, Oil Red 0 and Alcian blue staining respectively. Furthermore, these cells were found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem Androgen Receptor inhibitor cell markers like Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 which accentuate their pluripotent property. In conclusion, caprine amniotic fluid represents a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and these cells offer their scope for multiple regenerative therapies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The optical properties of hydrogen exposed palladium (Pd) and palladium oxide (PdO) thin films are calculated from reflectance and transmittance measurements in the visible and near infrared range (400-900 nm). The time evolution of the films’ optical constants when exposed to hydrogen is shown. The real part of palladium’s refractive index increases about 5%, whereas the imaginary part decreases nearly 15% after hydrogen absorption. The Pd films’ resistance also increased upon hydrogen absorption, as expected.

Most of the SSRs had lower PIC value (less than 0 30) and the max

Most of the SSRs had lower PIC value (less than 0.30) and the maximum PIC value was observed for JGM_A281, JGM_A326 (0.63) followed by JGM_B300 (0.62), JGM_B361 (0.58), JGM_A244 (0.55), JGM_B595 (0.55) and JGM_B176 (0.55). The genetic similarity coefficient among the accessions off. curcas and one accession off. integerrima ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 with an average of 0.57 +/- 0.31. The phenogram classified all the 7 accessions off. curcas in one cluster and the J. integerrima remained as an out group. The BLASTX analysis of SSR containing sequences showed maximum similarity of 50% with Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) followed by Populus trichocarpa (22%), Vitis

vinifera (16%) and Arabidopsis spp. (4.5%). This study may enrich the validated repertoire of SSR markers in J. curcas and could be used in various genetic buy PP2 studies including construction of linkage map, diversity analysis, and QTL/association mapping. (C) 2013

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to meet the needs of the rapidly growing fetus. However, its intake is associated with the generation of destructive Alpelisib free radicals, i.e., oxidative damage to the fetal brain. Folic acid supplementation is needed during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Hypothesis: Intake of folic acid can ameliorate the morphological features of cell damage in the striatal tissue (brain of neonatal rats) associated with the intake of iron. Objectives and methods: To test this hypothesis, an animal model (pregnant Albino rats) was established. The animals were divided into three groups: group A, control animals treated with saline only; group B, animals treated with iron gluconate; and group C, animals

treated concomitantly with iron gluconate and Buparlisib nmr folic acid. The striatal brain tissues of the neonates were examined for features of cellular damage, using immunohistological and ultrastructural methods. Results: The authors found significant variations among the three groups. The intake of iron (group B) and its deposition in the striatal tissue (neurons and glial cells) was associated with changes indicative of both cellular injury and regeneration. The former includes neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, and destruction of the organelles, including the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes of the neurons and glial cells. The latter includes microgliosis, astrogliosis, upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These changes were absent in the striatal tissue of the control group (group A) and in animals treated concomitantly with both iron gluconate and folic acid (group C). Conclusion: Intake of folic acid can protect the neonatal striatal tissue against iron-induced oxidative stress damage.

Measures of treatment complexity including simulations per linac

Measures of treatment complexity including simulations per linac course and radiation computer plans per linac course increased at steady rates of 3.6% (P=0.0019) and 3.2% (P = 0.0088) annually, respectively, but portals (fields) per linac treatment course increased exponentially after the implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The number of fractions per linac patient declined by 2.6% annually (P <0.0001).

Conclusions: This population-based study showed that radiation oncology workload increased at faster rates than the population or incidence of cancer. Measures of treatment complexity

indicate an increasing investment for each course of linac treatment, but also the adoption of hypofractionated regimens. These BI-D1870 results indicate that radiotherapy manpower requirements cannot be based on population or cancer incidence alone if current technological trends continue. (C) 2010 The Royal College learn more of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

All rights reserved.”
“Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is reemerging in Peru. VEE virus subtype ID in Peru has not been previously associated with severe disease manifestations. In 2006, VEE virus subtype ID was isolated from a boy with severe febrile disease and gastrointestinal bleeding, the strain contained 2 mutations within the PE2 region.”
“There has been an increase in the number of older patients on the transplant waiting list and acceptance of older donor kidneys. Although kidneys from older donors have been associated AZD2014 with poorer graft outcomes, whether there is a differential impact of donor age on outcomes in older recipients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor age on graft and patient survival in renal transplant (RT) recipients =60 years. Using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry,

outcomes of 1 037 RT recipients =60 years between 1995 and 2009 were analyzed. Donor age groups were categorized into 020, >2040, >4060, and >60 years. Compared with recipients receiving donor kidneys >60 years, those receiving donor kidneys >2040 years had lower risk of acute rejection (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.79; P < 0.01) and death-censored graft failure (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19, 0.72; P < 0.01). There was no association between donor age groups and death. With a corresponding growth in the availability of older donor kidneys and the observed lack of association between donor age and patient survival in RT recipients =60 years, preferential allocation of older donor kidneys to RT recipients =60 years may not disadvantage the life expectancy of these patients.”
“By scanning near-field optical microscopy, we measured the localization of the electromagnetic field on an array of gold nanodisks illuminated in a transmission mode. We experimentally observed that the field is localized between the disks, with a pattern oriented along the incident polarization direction.

In some sections, focal regions of thickened or diminished signal

In some sections, focal regions of thickened or diminished signal intensity were also found. In the prepared samples, UCC only, CC/bone, and UCC/CC/bone samples exhibited high signal intensity on the UTE images, whereas bone-only samples did not.

Conclusion: These results show that the high signal intensity on UTE images of human articular joints originates from the CC and the deepest layer of the UCC, without a definite contribution from subchondral bone. UTE sequences may provide a way of evaluating abnormalities at or near the osteochondral junction. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“The control of the magnetization in ferromagnetic layers via electric fields is a hot

topic in view of applications to the next generation of spintronic devices, where writing the magnetic information through current lines could be replaced by electric writing. Mixed valence manganites are good candidates for such a purpose because they present an intriguing coupling between ferromagnetism and charge ordering/doping which can be tuned by the application of an electric field. Here we present results on the near-room temperature control of the magnetization of optimally doped La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ultrathin films in vertical field effect devices, where they act as top or bottom electrodes. MDV3100 In the latter case a

slight decrease in the Curie temperature (similar to 5 K) is observed after application of 5 X 10(7) V/m, i.e., the maximum field preventing electric breakdown, compatible with the induced variation in the charge

density and mixed valence within the Thomas Fermi screening length. These results indicate that electric fields achievable in vertical field effect devices, of the same entity of interfacial fields originating from differences in the work function in heterostructures, have only minor influence on the magnetic properties of optimally Selleck INCB018424 doped ultrathin La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3516283]“
“Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is generally considered a safe procedure. Contraindications include the presence of foreign objects in or on the body, which may be subject to electromagnetic fields associated with the MR system. Most of these objects are well known and are routinely screened for prior to the procedure. The authors report an unusual adverse event that appears to have been caused by a unique combination of factors involving an identification bracelet, an item not previously known to present any risks. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a severe electrical thermal burn that required surgical intervention. Identification bracelets may need to be removed or padded to prevent direct contact with the patient’s skin during all MR imaging examinations for patients unable to communicate, such as those requiring sedation or general anesthesia.

In addition, the filaments in the network rearrange and redistrib

In addition, the filaments in the network rearrange and redistribute themselves to reduce the overall stress by decreasing their individual stresses. In parallel, we cyclically stretch NIH 3T3

fibroblasts and find a similar cytoskeletal response. With this work, we test the hypothesis that a first-principles mechanical model of filament assembly in a confined space is by itself capable of yielding the remodeling behavior observed experimentally. Identifying minimal mechanisms sufficient to reproduce mechanical influences on cellular structure has important implications in a diversity of fields, including biology, physics, medicine, computer science, and engineering. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cerebellum CBL0137 astrocytomas are the most typical nervous system tumors in children. Several cognitive deficits have been previously described. These deficits are probably produced by cerebellar connection and gray matter damage. The present study examines attentional deficits in children operated on for cerebellum

astrocytomas, using an attentional paradigm with theoretical and clinical bases: the Attentional Network Test (ANT). This test was designed considering the attentional network theory proposed by Posner, and its usefulness has been demonstrated in clinical settings. Children operated on for cerebellar RAD001 astrocytoma showed a mild attentional deficit in the orientation network. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Integrin receptors bind to adhesion ligand (e.g. arginine-glycine-aspartic acid or RGD containing peptides) on extracellular matrix and organize into high-density complexes which mediate many cell behaviors. Biomaterials with RGD nanopatterned into multivalent “”islands”" (similar to 30-70 nm diameter) have been shown to alter buy Sonidegib cell responses, although the length scale of pattern features is orders of magnitude smaller than adhesion complexes. In this work, we employ together for the first time an extensive data set on osteoblast responses

as a function of ligand nanopatterns, a computational model of integrin binding to ligand nanopatterns, and new measures of integrin organization on the cell surface. We quantify, at multiple length scales, integrin organization generated in silico as a function of RGD nanopattern parameters. We develop a correlative model relating these measures of in silico integrin organization and in vitro MC3T3 preosteoblast cell responses as functions of the same RGD nanopatterns: cell spreading correlates with the number of bound integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation correlates with small, homogeneously distributed clusters of integrins, and osteogenic differentiation correlates with large, heterogeneously distributed integrin clusters.

The sampling was conducted in different seasons of the year in or

The sampling was conducted in different seasons of the year in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural radioactivity.

Data was also compared to previous findings to corroborate our findings. The mean of activity concentration found was 2.34 +/- 0.61 and 149 +/- 58 Bq/kg dry for total uranium and (210)Po, respectively. In mussels the concentration trend of the studied radionuclides was (40)K > (210)Po >> (210)Pb > uranium isotopes. The mean individual dose due to ingestion Lazertinib ic50 of mussels for (210)Po was in the range 1.65 x 10(-2) to 9.20 x 10(-2) mSv yr(-1). The dose derived from uranium isotopes, (40)K, and (210)Pb was negligible. Data show that mussels may be considered a reliable species model for human biomonitoring for radiation exposure.”
“Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

accounts for 10% of all ALS. Approximately 20% of cases are due to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1). In North America, SOD1(A4V) is the most common SOD1 mutation. Carriers of the SOD1(A4V) mutation share a common phenotype with rapid disease progression and death on average occurring at 1.4 years (versus 3-5 years with other dominant SOD1 mutations). Previous studies of SOD1(A4V) carriers identified a common haplotype around the SOD1 locus, suggesting a common founder for most SOD1(A4V) patients. In the current study we sequenced SU5402 the entire common haplotypic region around SOD1 to Cyclopamine clinical trial test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in either previously undescribed coding regions or non-coding regions around SOD1 are responsible for the more aggressive phenotype in SOD1(A4V)-mediated

ALS. We narrowed the conserved region around the SOD1 gene in SOD1(A4V) ALS to 2.8 Kb and identified five novel SNPs therein. None of these variants was specifically found in all SOD1(A4V) patients. It therefore appears likely that the aggressive nature of the SOD1(A4V) mutation is not a result of a modifying factor within the region around the SOD1 gene. Founder analysis estimates that the A4V mutation occurred 540 generations (similar to 12,000 years) ago (95% CI 480-700). The conserved minimal haplotype is statistically more similar to Asian than European population DNA sets, suggesting that the A4V mutation arose in native Asian-Americans who reached the Americas through the Bering Strait. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) of potential populations at risk living in Portugal. To ascertain youth exposure, a questionnaire was distributed to 300 students of a middle secondary school in Sesimbra and to 429 students studying in Canecas, selected as the control population. The average number of fish meals consumed by person was 4.1 and 3 per week in Sesimbra and Canecas, respectively.