Table 2 5-year OS for local resection from selected ampullectomy series This study has several limitations associated
with this website retrospective studies. Patients who received CRT displayed higher rates of positive margins and poor tumor differentiation, demonstrating selection bias. Consistent with other similar types of retrospective studies, patients with more advanced disease are generally referred for CRT. Furthermore, the rarity of ampullary adenocarcinomas, in conjunction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the subset of patients who are unfit or refuse radical resection, yielded only 17 patients over 34 years at our institution. Though our sample size is limited, to our knowledge, it represents the largest reported series of patients with invasive ampullary adenocarcinoma managed by local resection. Given there are few series evaluating the treatment of ampullary malignancies by local resection, there is a lack of coherent criteria for defining when local excision is suitable for invasive adenocarcinomas. Given the rarity of ampullary carcinomas
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and a lack of randomized prospective studies, large institutional experiences can facilitate treatment planning. These findings suggest that given the high rates of local failure and poor overall survival, local resection with ampullectomy is not an adequate method of curative resection in the vast majority of invasive tumors, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical even in combination Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. In summary, our series suggests that ampullectomy for invasive ampullary adenocarcinomas is a relatively safe procedure but does not offer satisfactory long-term results, mostly due to high local failure rates. Adjuvant chemoradiation therapy does not appear to offer increased local control or survival
benefit following ampullectomy, although these results may suffer from selection bias and small sample size. We believe that local resection should be limited to benign ampullary lesions or patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical very small, early tumors with favorable histologic features where pancreaticoduodenectomy is not deemed feasible. Additionally, ampullectomy can serve as a diagnostic procedure to provide frozen section analysis to evaluate for the presence of invasive carcinoma, following which pancreaticoduodenectomy can be performed (10). Although our study suggests low cure rates for patients with more advanced ampullary tumors, local resection, others possibly combined with chemoradiotherapy, may serve as safe and adequate approach to palliation as well as a chance of long-term disease-free survival for a small number of patients who are not operative candidates or who refuse pancreaticoduodenectomy. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Gastroesophageal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, although the relative incidence in the US is much lower when compared globally (1).