Through neuronal apoptosis induction by shifting mature cerebellar granule neurons to low-potassium medium, we have demonstrated that nuclear liver activator protein 1 expression decreases and its phosphorylation disappears, whereas liver inhibitory protein levels
increase in the nuclear fraction, suggesting a pro-survival role for liver activator protein transcriptional activation and a pro-apoptotic role for liver inhibitory protein transcriptional inhibition. To confirm this, we transfected cerebellar granule neurons with plasmids expressing see more liver activator protein 1, liver activator protein 2, or liver inhibitory protein respectively, and observed that both liver activator proteins, which increase Ibrutinib cost CCAAT-dependent transcription, but not liver inhibitory protein, counteracted apoptosis, thus demonstrating the pro-survival role of liver activator proteins. These data significantly improve our current understanding of the role of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β in neuronal survival/apoptosis. CCAAT enhancer binding protein
(C/EBP) β belongs to a transcription factor family (C/EBP α–ζ) whose members contain a basic leucine-zipper domain for DNA binding and dimerization (Nerlov, 2008). Homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions occur among members of this family. C/EBP β exists in three isoforms generated from a single mRNA by leaky ribosome scanning: 38-kDa liver activator protein (LAP) 1 (LAP1), 35-kDa LAP2, and 21-kDa liver inhibitory protein (LIP). LAP1 and LAP2 contain both the transactivation and basic leucine-zipper domains, whereas LIP lacks the transactivation domain and forms non-functional heterodimers with LAP1 and LAP2 (Descombes
& Schibler, 1991; Ossipow et al., 1993). These transcription factors undergo post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and sumoylation, as well Dapagliflozin as subcellular translocation, which regulate transcriptional function (Nerlov, 2008; Kowenz-Leutz et al., 2010). C/EBPs have been extensively studied, owing to their importance in several cellular processes and in various diseases, including cancer. C/EBP β has multiple roles: it may inhibit or promote cell proliferation or differentiation, as well as survival or apoptosis, depending on the cell context and expressed isoforms (Sebastian & Johnson, 2006; Nerlov, 2007; Li et al., 2008; Ramathal et al., 2010). In the liver, LAP arrests cell cycle progression, whereas LIP induces hepatocyte proliferation (Buck et al., 1994). Moreover, LAP Thr217 phosphorylation in the mouse protein (Ser105 in rat) is required for hepatocyte proliferation and blocks apoptosis, determining cell survival (Buck et al., 1999, 2001; Buck & Chojkier, 2003). Furthermore, the LAP/LIP ratio is critical in C/EBP β-mediated gene transcription, and modulates the cell response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (Li et al., 2008).