The outcomes of interest were periangiographic complications, including active bleeding, groin hematoma, and clotting. Active bleeding was defined as bleeding from
the puncture site of longer than 15 minutes after manual compress, groin hematoma was defined as a painful and swollen area with bruise ≥5 cm, and clotting was defined as the presence of clot at the site of the femoral access and sheath. Coronary angiography was performed through six Fr sheaths via the femoral artery, using a modified Seldinger technique. Visipaque was used as contrast medium. The femoral arterial sheath was removed immediately after the procedure and was compressed manually for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a minimum of 15 minutes until homeostasis occurred. Mobilization was permitted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for a minimum of 8 hours after the sheath removal. The angiography puncture sites were assessed at 4 and 24 hours after the completion of the procedure. The Pearson Chi-square test was employed for analysis at a significance level of 0.05 using statistical software Stata
11 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Of the initial 500 patients, 9 were excluded from each group because of abnormal PT and PTT results. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Of the remaining 482 patients, 285 (59.1%) patients were men and 197 (40.9%) were women, with an age range of 45-75 years. Four hundred twenty-five (88.2%) patients had ejection fraction >40%, while 57 (11.8%) had ejection fraction ≤40%. One hundred eighty-three (38%) patients had a history of hypertension, and 124 (25.7%) had a history of diabetes mellitus. Retroperitoneal hematoma and pseudoaneurysm at the site of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the femoral puncture did not occur in any of the patients. Hemorrhage Ibrutinib chemical structure occurred at the site of catheterization after initial hemostasis in 7 (2.9%) patients in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical case and in 3 (1.24%) patients in the control group. Groin hematoma occurred in 2 (0.8%) patients in the case
group and 2 (0.8%) patients in the control group. Clot formation in the catheter or sheath occurred in 8 (3.32%) patients of the case group and 13 (5.39 %) patients of the control group medroxyprogesterone (table 1). Table 1 Frequency (%) of active hemorrhage at the site of catheterization after initial hemostasis, groin hematoma, and clotting in patients undergoing coronary angiography No chest pain or new ECG change was observed in either of the groups, and nor were there any cerebral or peripheral vascular events in the patients of both groups. Discussion All the studies that have hitherto sought to assess the efficacy of heparin administration during coronary angiography contradict each other in various aspects. The first aspect is the heterogeneity of the population. Some studies, including the present one, inherently focus on low-risk patients, which would lean toward a weaker conclusion in favor of heparin administration.