Data were collected from accidental coral catches during experime

Data were collected from accidental coral catches during experimental long-line fishing using two different hook sizes (No. 7 targeting hake and No. 9 targeting blackspot seabream). Eight coral taxa were identified, with new records for the E. Ionian Sea for Antipathes dichotoma, Desmophyllum dianthus, Swiftia pallida and Pennatula phosphorea. CWCs occurred in 72% of the long lines and most of them were entire and live (except Leiopathes glaberrima). The most frequently caught coral group was Antipatharia. Isidella elongata and A. dichotoma presented the highest abundance. The main bulk of the corals was caught between 500 and 600 m

depth. Some of the identified corals (L. glaberrima and L elongata) seemed to have more close relationships with some species of the fish assemblage (Galeus melastomus, Helicolenus dactylopterus) inhabiting the study Selleck AZ 628 area. Species richness and coral catch in numbers were higher for the smaller hook size (No. 9), which caught the larger entire living colonies of A. dichotoma, L glaberrima and I. elongata. As a result, the corals collected during the present study, characterized by slow growth rates and high longevities, could be considered vulnerable to the gear used in blackspot seabream fishery; this implies the need for more research, monitoring, protection and sustainable management. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

“Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor from the Nure x Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination

segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) GSK461364 clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

Furthermore the dot blot method had a higher sensitivity than rou

Furthermore the dot blot method had a higher sensitivity than routine culture, before and after enrichment. These results indicate that dot blot hybridization may be used to directly detect Salmonella invA, spiC and sipC in clinical samples.”
“OBJECTIVE: To determine the time interval during which quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes

stabilize after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS).\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional, longitudinal cohort\n\nSETTING: Tertiary rhinology centers\n\nSUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adults with chronic rhinosinusitis from three Selleckchem URMC-099 medical centers were asked to provide responses to the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and the Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS) at baseline and six months, 12 months, and 20 months after endoscopic sinus surgery Repeated measures and post-hoc analyses were used to compare QOL scores among follow-up time points. Subgroup analyses were performed in a similar fashion for patients with and without nasal polyposis, asthma, allergies, acetylsalicylic acid intolerance, depression, and previous sinus surgery.\n\nRESULTS: A total of 127 patients provided complete follow-up data for all three time points. Improvement in QOL scores was seen at six months after surgery for both the RSDI and CSS instruments selleck compound When comparing changes in mean QOL scores among all follow-up time points, there were no significant differences

in either RSDI or CSS total scores (all P >= 0.853) or subscale scores (all P >=

0.251) between six, 12, and 20 months Each individual subgroup demonstrated stable QOL scores between six and 20 months’ follow-up, including patients with polyposis and those with intolerance to acetylsalicylic acid (all P >= 0.275).\n\nCONCLUSION: At a cohort level, improvements in QOL after ESS do not appear to change between six and 20 months. Clinical trial designs incorporating QOL outcomes after ESS should consider the six-month time frame as an appropriate primary end point (C) 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. All rights reserved.”
“Background Cytochrome P450 inhibition by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may attenuate the effectiveness of clopidogrel. Aim To examine whether PPI use modifies the association between clopidogrel use and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after percutaneous CB-839 in vivo coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation, using time-varying drug exposure ascertainment. Methods We conducted this population-based cohort study in Western Denmark (population 3 million) using medical databases. We identified all 13 001 patients with coronary stent implantation between 2002 and 2005 and ascertained their reported comorbidities. During the recommended 12-month postintervention treatment period, we tracked use of clopidogrel and PPI and the rate of MACE. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs), controlling for potential confounders.

Using amide proton exchange

(APT) measurements in tumours

Using amide proton exchange

(APT) measurements in tumours, it is demonstrated that the acquisition of two-dimensional EXPRESS spectra composed of chemical shift and saturation frequency offset dimensions allows the correction of CEST data containing both fat and water signals, which is a common confounding property of tissues found outside the brain. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of 4SC-202 supplier atrophic maxillae remains a challenging problem. The aim of this paper is to describe a novel treatment for functional rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla and to discuss preliminary results of this treatment protocol. A prospective pilot study was carried out in 10 patients who underwent bony reconstruction of atrophic maxillae under general anaesthesia, with autologous calvarial bone grafts and simultaneous placement of six provisional implants. The provisional implants were loaded with a provisional acrylic bridge 1 day after surgery. After 6 months, the provisional

implants were removed and final implants were placed under local anaesthesia, again in 10058-F4 an immediate loading concept with a provisional bridge, followed by a final bridge after another 6 months of healing. The bone grafts integrated well in all 10 patients without infectious complications. The prosthetic survival of the provisional bridge at the time of placing the implants was 100%. All final implants could be placed and immediately loaded with a second provisional bridge. Patient satisfaction was high due

to limited postoperative inconvenience and immediate fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. The preliminary results of this pilot study demonstrate that this treatment protocol is a well tolerated treatment for patients with maxillary atrophy desiring dental rehabilitation.”
“Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine (HAA) profiles and concentrations depended on several factors. The largest changes in the HAA profile were observed in meat ripened (chill stored) for 5-10 days. Amines whos concentration varied most prominently included: Phe-P 1, harmane, A alpha C. IQ IQx, PhIP, MeA alpha C, and MeIQx. HAA concentrations were strongly correlated with concentrations of the above compounds. Time of storage significantly affected ZD1839 chemical structure the HAA profile and concentration. The profile changed dynamically for storage times up to 10 days. For longer times the profile stabilized, only the HAA content increased.\n\nA novel, highly precise and accurate HAA analytical method was developed for this study. Results may help to optimize meat processing technology from the point of view of reducing concentration of HAA formed during heat treatment, including the most carcinogenic; IQ, IQx, MeIQx and PhIP amines. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Chronic adductor enthesopathy is a well-known cause of groin pain in athletes.

Conclusions: Male veterans with mental health problems should be

Conclusions: Male veterans with mental health problems should be targeted with outreach to reduce unmet need. Research is needed to identify perceived barriers to treatment among veterans. (Psychiatric Services 63: 380-382, 2012; doi: 10.1176/”
“In this review article we have gathered relatively recent publications involving modern methodologies for iodination reactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds using pure water or mixtures containing water as environmentally friendly media.”
“We present the results obtained in dissociative electron attachment to Semtex in the gas phase by making use of a crossed

electron-molecular beam experiment. Energy dependence of partial cross sections has been measured in an electron energy range

from 0 to 12 eV with an energy resolution AZD7762 in vitro of similar to 80 meV. Semtex 1A and H are mixtures of two other explosives, i.e., royal demolition explosive – RDX (hexogen) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate – PETN (pentrite), appearing in different fractions. In Tariquidar clinical trial fresh samples product anions from both explosives can be detected together with anions originating from volatile markers. After some time we only observe product ions formed upon dissociative electron attachment to PETN, which are not observed for a mixture of pure RDX and PETN. For both Semtex samples, an additional anionic feature at 210 m/z can be assigned to the binder butyl rubber. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background Traumatic injuries to primary teeth represent one of the most common aetiologic factors of time-related eruption disturbances

of permanent teeth. These include premature eruption, delayed eruption or impactions.\n\nCase report A case of a 7.5-year-old male with delayed eruption of the maxillary permanent left incisor is presented. The case history revealed a trauma around the age of 3 involving its primary tooth predecessor, and its extraction by a dentist about one year later, due to frequent abscesses. The clinical examination showed an early mixed dentition and the single presence of tooth 11 in the dental arch, with an obvious aesthetic problem that affected the child’s self image. The periapical x-ray ruled out any dimorphism on the impacted tooth, and it selleck compound showed a root developed by two thirds. About 2 months after the examination, a simple gingivectomy was carried out, and the tooth could erupt completely 3 months later without any need for orthodontic traction. One year after surgery a complete root development could be observed, as well as the presence of the lateral incisors with a moderate crowding.”
“We report on next-generation transcriptome sequencing results of three human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor/tumor-adjacent pairs. This analysis robustly examined similar to 12,000 genes for both expression differences and molecular alterations.

Accordingly, MICAL-L1 depletion impairs focal adhesion turnover,

Accordingly, MICAL-L1 depletion impairs focal adhesion turnover, cell spreading

and cell migration. Interestingly, Compound C clinical trial we find that the MICAL-L1 interaction partner EHD1 (EH domain-containing protein 1) is also required for Src activation and transport. Moreover, the MICAL-L1-mediated recruitment of EHD1 to Src-containing recycling endosomes is required for the release of Src from the perinuclear endocytic recycling compartment in response to growth factor stimulation. Our study sheds new light on the mechanism by which Src is transported to the plasma membrane and activated, and provides a new function for MICAL-L1 and EHD1 in the regulation of intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases.”
“BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: IR has recently demonstrated its capacity to reduce noise and permit dose reduction in abdominal and thoracic CT applications. The purpose

of our study was to assess the potential benefit of IR in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality with standard FBP at various dose levels.\n\nMATERIALS MK-0518 AND METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced head CT at a standard dose (320 mAs; CTDI, 60.1) or 15% (275 mAs; CTDI, 51.8) and 30% (225 mAs; CTDI, 42.3) dose reduction. All acquisitions were reconstructed with IR in image space, and FBP and images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative 10.\n\nRESULTS: Compared with FBP, IR resulted in lower image noise (P <= .02), higher

CNR (P <= .03), and improved subjective image quality (P <= .002) at all dose levels. While degradation of objective and subjective IQ at 15% dose reduction was fully compensated by IR (CNR, 1.98 +/- 0.4 at click here 320 mAs with FBP versus 2.05 +/- 0.4 at 275 mAs with IR; IQ, 1.8 versus 1.7), IQ was considerably poorer at 70% standard dose despite using the iterative approach (CNR, 1.98 +/- 0.3 at 320 mAs with FBP versus 1.85 +/- 0.4 at 225 mAs with IR, P = .18;10, 1.8 versus 2.2, P = .03). Linear regression analysis of CNR against tube current suggests that standard CNR may be obtained until approximately 20.4% dose reduction when IR is used.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Compared with conventional FBP, IR of head CT is associated with significant improvement of objective and subjective IQ and may allow dose reductions in the range of 20% without compromising standard image quality.”
“Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is often difficult, especially early in the disease process at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Yet, it is at this stage that treatment is most likely to be effective, so there would be great advantages in improving the diagnosis process. We describe and test a machine learning approach for personalized and cost-effective diagnosis of AD.

The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased signific

The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP- oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP- oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs.”
“Inhibition of the catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric

methionine S-adenosyl transferase-2

(MAT2A) with fluorinated N,N-dialkylaminostilbenes (FIDAS agents) offers a potential avenue for the treatment of Selleckchem STA-9090 liver and colorectal cancers where upregulation of this enzyme occurs. A study of structure activity relationships led to the identification of the most active compounds as those with (1) either a 2,6-difluorostyryl or 2-chloro-6-fluorostyryl subunit, (2) either an N-methylamino or N,N-dimethylamino group attached in a para orientation relative to the 2,6-dihalostyryl subunit, and (3) either an N-methylaniline or a 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine ring. These modifications led to FIDAS agents that were active in the low nanomolar range, that formed water-soluble hydrochloride salts, and that possessed the desired property of not inhibiting the see more human hERG potassium ion channel at concentrations at which the FIDAS agents inhibit MAT2A. The active FIDAS agents may inhibit cancer cells through alterations of methylation reactions essential for cancer cell survival and growth.”
“Oral diseases, specifically dental caries and periodontal disease, are characterised by

increases in pathogenic microorganisms, increased demineralisation and increased inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Despite the therapeutic strategies, oral diseases have elevated prevalence rates. Recent work has demonstrated that ACY-241 probiotic bio-therapeutics can decrease oral pathogen counts, including caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and oral inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate putative probiotic bacteria, selected for S. mutans inhibition and for their oral health-promoting characteristics. The probiotic bacteria were screened for S. mutans inhibition, probiotic bacteriocin activity, salivary pH modulation, probiotic nutrient (sucrose) competition, probiotic co-aggregation with S. mutans, bacterial attachment to oral epithelial keratinocytes, bacterial nitric oxide production and bacterial antioxidant activity. The results indicate that Lactobacillus reuteri strains NCIMB 701359, NCIMB 701089, NCIMB 702655 and NCIMB 702656 inhibited S. mutans to non-detectable levels ( smaller than 10 cfu/ml). L.

“Neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) to replacement facto

“Neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) to replacement factor VIII (FVIII, either plasma derived or recombinant) impair the effective management of hemophilia A1. Individuals with hemophilia A due to major deletions of the FVIII gene (F8) lack antigenically cross-reactive Danusertib concentration material in their plasma (“CRM-negative”), and the prevalence of inhibitors in these individuals may be as high as 90%. Conversely, individuals with hemophilia A caused by F8 missense mutations are CRM-positive, and

their overall prevalence of inhibitors is < 10% (ref. 2). Individuals with the F8 intron 22 inversion (found in similar to 50% of individuals with severe hemophilia A) have been grouped with the former on the basis of their genetic defect and CRM-negative status. However, only similar to 20% of these individuals develop inhibitors3. Here we demonstrate that the levels of F8 mRNA and intracellular FVIII protein in B lymphoblastoid cells and liver biopsies LY2090314 from individuals with the intron 22 inversion are comparable to those in healthy controls. These results support the hypothesis that most individuals with the intron 22 inversion are tolerized to FVIII and thus do not develop inhibitors. Furthermore, we developed a new pharmacogenetic

algorithm that permits the stratification of inhibitor risk for individuals and subpopulations by predicting the immunogenicity of replacement FVIII using, as input, the number of putative T cell epitopes in the infused protein and the competence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules to present such epitopes. This algorithm showed statistically significant accuracy in predicting the presence of inhibitors in 25 unrelated individuals with the intron 22 inversion.”
“Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure learn more leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In

a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 degrees C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

Early development of systemic administration options may be intra

Early development of systemic administration options may be intravenous (iSONEP) or oral (X-82). Initial study of local radiation therapy may be via proton beam irradiation or stereotactic radiotherapy. Several intravitreal injections are being studied including human immuno-conjugate molecule (hl-con1), abicipar pegol, PF582, DE-120, ESBA 1008, and REGN2176-3. Summary Numerous treatment options of neovascular age-related macular degeneration are in phase 1/2 clinical trials including gene therapy, eye drops, systemic dosing, localized irradiation, and various intravitreal injections. Future phase 3 trial results will be observed closely to determine which of these therapies will be

the next novel treatment of Smoothened Agonist chemical structure neovascular age-related macular degeneration.”
“The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 gene (HER-2) encodes for a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase (Her-2), which is overexpressed in various human cancers. Her-2-targeted therapy has recently been shown to be beneficial for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Her-2 protein expression ACY-738 clinical trial was investigated in 341 esophageal carcinomas [152 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 189 adenocarcinomas

(AC)], 39 cases of Barrett mucosa, and 11 cases of squamous cell dysplasia. HER-2 gene amplification was assessed by colorimetric in-situ hybridization. Positive Her-2 status was found in 15.3% of ACs and 3.9% of SCCs. Positive Her-2-status was more common in dysplastic Barrett mucosas compared with non-dysplastic ones (P = 0.04). In 26% of the patients with ACs who had received

neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 39), the Her-2 status of pretherapeutic biopsies was different compared with subsequent surgical specimens. There was no statistically significant correlation between Her-2 status and patients’ survival. Although Her-2 overexpression is rare in SCCs, it is found in 15.3% of ACs, where amplification of HER-2 gene and overexpression of Her-2 protein seem to be early events in carcinogenesis. The evaluation of Her-2 status in tumor biopsies and in particular in the context with possible alterations after neoadjuvant treatment Bcl-2 cancer can potentially lead to false Her-2-staging. Although Her-2-overexpression in esophageal cancer seems to have no influence on patients’ survival, these subtypes of esophageal ACs have to be considered as targets for an anti-Her-2 therapy.”
“Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Quercetin, a ubiquitous plant flavonoid, has been shown to have a number of bioactivities and may offer a variety of potential therapeutic uses. We explored the roles of quercetin in the regulation of PON1 expression, serum and liver activity and protective capacity of HDL against LDL oxidation in rats.

“Complementary treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are soug

“Complementary treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are sought by patients for symptomatic relief and to avoid the iatrogenic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. selleck chemical This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel, GLM) in the treatment of OA and substantially adds to previous work by focussing solely on GLM use in OA as well providing a re-analysis of the original

trial data. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (comparative, placebo-controlled or crossover) were considered for inclusion from Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Scopus and NeLH databases where adults with OA of any joint were randomized to receive either GLM vs. placebo, no additional intervention NOV120101 (usual care), or an active intervention. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the JADAD scale. Four RCTs were included, three placebo controlled, the fourth a comparative trial of GLM lipid extract vs. stabilized powder extract. No RCTs comparing GLM to conventional treatment were identified. All four studies assessed GLM as an adjunctive treatment to conventional medication for a clinically relevant time

in mild to moderate OA. All trials reported clinical benefits in the GLM treatment group but the findings from two studies cannot be included in this review because of possible un-blinding and inappropriate statistical analysis. The data from the two more rigorous trials, in conjunction with our re-analysis of original data suggests that GLM may be superior to placebo for the treatment of mild to moderate OA. As a credible biological mechanism exists for this treatment, further rigorous investigations are required to assess efficacy and optimal dosage.”
“Objective: To examine human blastocyst microRNA (miRNA) expression in correlation with human infertility. MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression Selleck CCI-779 via mechanisms

such as degradation and translational suppression of targeted messenger RNAs. Recent data has pointed to the importance of miRNAs in disease states and during mouse embryo development.\n\nDesign: Descriptive study.\n\nSetting: Nonprofit research foundation.\n\nPatient(s): Transferable quality human blastocysts donated with consent to research (n = 40).\n\nIntervention(s): Quantitative real-time PCR.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): MicroRNA expression profile.\n\nResult(s): Morphologically similar blastocysts derived from patients with polycystic ovaries or male factor infertility exhibited a significant decrease in the expression of six miRNAs in comparison with donor fertile control blastocysts (P < 0.05). Annotation of predicted gene targets for these differentially expressed miRNAs included gene ontology (GO) biological processes involved in cell growth and maintenance and transcription as well as GO molecular functions implicated in nucleic acid binding and signal transducer activity.

However, E/EDT and E/Ea can be considered the best indices with r

However, E/EDT and E/Ea can be considered the best indices with regard to feasibility. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr CA3 price 2009; 22:

“The in vitro rumen methane output of perennial ryegrass (receiving 0 or 150 kg of inorganic fertiliser N/ha/growth) and two red clover varieties (Merviot and Ruttinova) at three different harvests (early and late primary growths, and an autumn regrowth) was assayed using the gas production technique (GPT). Herbages were produced within a randomised complete block (n=4) design experiment conducted over two consecutive years. The forage samples selected from this field plot experiment were arranged in a 4 (herbages) x 3 (harvests) factorial structure of treatments. Dried milled herbage samples were incubated at 39 degrees C in a buffered medium inoculated with rumen fluid obtained

from fistulated steers. Effects on methane output, feed disappearance, volatile fatty GSK690693 supplier acid (VFA) output and other fermentation variables were evaluated 24h after inoculation. Red clover (mean of the two varieties) had a lower (P < 0.001) methane output per g of feed incubated (CH(4)/DMi) than perennial ryegrass (mean of both treatments) but this effect was reversed (P < 0.05) when methane outputs were expressed relative to feed disappeared (CH(4)/DMd). No differences in methane output were detected between the two red clover varieties (Merviot and Ruttinova) reflecting their similar chemical composition. The application of inorganic N fertiliser to ryegrass reduced (P < 0.05) CH(4)/DMi resulting in similar Z-VAD-FMK output to the red clover. Mature herbage from the primary growth, and the autumn regrowth, had lower (P < 0.05) CH(4)/DMi than immature herbage from the primary growth. The lowest (P < 0.05) CH(4)/DMd was associated with the autumn regrowth and was probably due to the presence of non-fermentable soluble compounds in the sward. Overall, a reduction in the in vitro rumen methane output was observed with (1) red clover compared to perennial ryegrass, (2) nitrogen-fertilised compared to non-fertilised perennial ryegrass, and (3) mature

primary growth or autumn regrowth compared to immature primary growth. The reduction in methane output was associated with a decline in the extent of fermentation of the herbage as indicated by reduced VFA production. In addition, an increase in the nitrate concentration of fertilised ryegrass could have played an important role in the reduction of methanogenesis by decreasing the availability of hydrogen. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Holliday junctions (HJs) can be formed between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes during the recombinational repair of DNA lesions. A variety of pathways act upon HJs to remove them from DNA, in events that are critical for appropriate chromosome segregation.