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height monitoring. Appl Phys Lett 2008,93(143115):1–3. 33. Aliev AE, Lima MH, Silverman EM, Baughman RH: Thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets: radiation losses and quenching of phonon modes. Nanotechnology 2010,21(035709):1–11. 34. Di J, Hu D, Chen H, Yong Z, Chen M, Feng Z, Zhu Y, Li Q: Ultrastrong, foldable, and highly conductive carbon nanotube film. ACS Nano 2012, 6:5457–5464.CrossRef 35. Kataura H, Kumazawa Y, Maniwa Y, Umezu I, Suzuki S, Ohtsuka Y, Achiba Y: Optical properties 4��8C of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Synt Metals 1999, 103:2555–2558.CrossRef 36. Chen G, Futaba DN, Kimura H, Sakurai S, Yumura M, Hata K: Absence of an ideal single-walled carbon nanotube forest structure for thermal and electrical conductivities. ACS Nano DOI: 10.1021/nn404504f Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SS and KH designed the experiments. SS, FK, and DNF conducted CNT synthesis. FK conducted fabrication and characterization of buckypaper. SS and KH prepared the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Recently, nanoscale TiO2 materials have attracted extensive interest as promising materials for its applications in environmental pollution control and energy storage [1]. However, TiO2 is only responsive to UV light (λ < 380 nm, 3% to 5% solar energy) due to its large bandgap energy (typically 3.2 eV for anatase).

: Stenting or stoma creation for patients with inoperable maligna

: Stenting or stoma creation for patients with inoperable malignant colonic obstructions? Surg Endosc 2004, 18:421–426.CrossRefPubMed 37. Fiori E, Lamazza A, De Cesare A, Bononi M, Volpino P, Schillaci A, et al.: Palliative management of malignant rectosigmoidal obstruction. Colostomy vs. endoscopic stenting. A randomized prospective trial. Anticancer Res 2004, 24:265–268.PubMed 38. van Hooft JE, Fockens P, Marinelli AW, Bossuyt PM, Bemelman WA: On behalf of the Dutch Stent-in I study group. Premature closure of the Dutch Stent-in I study.

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2008, 67:AB307.CrossRef 41. Brehant O, Fuks D, Bartoli E, Yzet T, Verhaeghe P, Regimbeau JM: Bridge to Surgery Stenting in Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction Using the WAllFlex Colonic Stent: Reoprt of a Prospective Multicenter Registry. Colorectal Disease 2009, 11:178–183.CrossRefPubMed 42. Cennamo V, Fuccio L, Mutri V, Minardi ME, Eusebi LH, Ceroni L, Laterza L, Ansaloni L, Pinna AD, Salfi N, Martoni AA, Bazzoli F: Does Stent Placement for Advanced Colon Cancer Increase the Risk of Perforation During Bevacizumab-Based Therapy? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009, 7:1174–1176.CrossRefPubMed 43. Khot UP, Wenk Lang A, Murali K, Parker MC: Systematic review of the efficacy and safety of colorectal stents. Br J Surg 2002, 89:1096–1102.CrossRefPubMed 44. Sebastian S, Johnston S, Geoghegan T, Torreggiani W, Buckley M: Pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety

of self-expanding metal stenting in selleck chemical malignant colorectal obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol 2004, 99:2051–2057.CrossRefPubMed 45. Breitenstein S, Rickenbacher A, Berdajs D, Puhan M, Clavien PA, Demartines N: Systematic evaluation of surgical strategies for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. Br J Surg 2007,94(12):1451–60.CrossRefPubMed 46. Dionigi G, Villa F, Rovera F, Boni L, Carrafiello G, Annoni M, Castano P, Bianchi V, Mangini M, Recaldini C, Laganà D, Bacuzzi A, Dionigi R: Colonic stenting for malignant disease: review of literature. Surg Oncol 2007,16(Suppl 1):S153–155.CrossRefPubMed 47. Costi R, Mazzeo A, di Mauro D, et al.: Palliative resection of colorectal cancer: does it prolong survival? Ann Surg Oncol 2007, 14:2567–2576.CrossRefPubMed 48. Konyalian VR, Rosing DK, Haukoos JS, et al.: The role of primary tumour resection in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer.

Such in situ PL spectrum

and mapping indicate strong loca

Such in situ PL spectrum

and mapping indicate strong localization and oscillation of photon propagation along the longitudinal axis. This behavior is a typical coupled optical multi-cavity. Figure 5 PL spectra and corresponding emission mapping images. (a) Pure ZnSe, (b) ZnSeMn, (c), , and (d) nanobelt, respectively. The insets are the corresponding bright-field optical and dark-field emission images. The red curve in (d) is the fitted PL spectrum. (e) The PL of each individual emission band in (c). (f) PL mapping images of individual emission sub-band in (d). The scale is 4 μm. The growth conditions can be adjusted to obtain PARP inhibitor another nanobelt. Figure 6a is the SEM image and EDS of the nanobelt with lower Mn concentration (0.39%). Figure 6b is the dark-field emission image of single nanobelt with 0.39% Mn content, which also shows the optical waveguide characteristic. The inset is the corresponding bright-field optical image. Figure 6c is the corresponding far-field PL spectrum. The PL spectrum contains near-band edge emission of ZnSe with weak intensity and transition emission of Mn2+ with strong intensity. Compared with Figure 5d,

the split of Mn2+ emission in Figure 6c is not evident. We can distinguish Enzalutamide cost ambiguously that the Mn2+ emission split into many narrow sub-bands with a smaller periodic span (about 2 nm). The PL mapping is carried out for individual sub-bands to see if there are integrated multi-cavities in the nanobelt (Figure 6d). We can see that the band of 552 nm distributes homogeneously

in the whole nanobelt. The sub-bands of 584, 630 and 670 nm distribute almost at two sides of the nanobelt. The excited photon emits at the side and end of the nanobelt usually after scattering at the boundary many times [33]. The optical multi-cavity phenomenon is not evident, although MTMR9 it still exists in the nanobelt due to the incontinuous emission intensity distribution at the two sides. The reduced Mn content can reduce the impurity and trapped state in the nanobelt and then affect the cavity quality greatly. Therefore, both dopant and micro-cavity play an important role in the multi-modes emission. Figure 6 Characterization of another nanobelt with low Mn 2+ concentration (0.39%). (a) SEM image and EDS. (b) Dark-field emission image. The inset is the corresponding bright-field optical image. (c) The corresponding PL spectrum. (d) The corresponding PL mapping images of individual emission sub-bands. The scale is 10 μm. Conclusions We synthesized pure and Mn-doped ZnSe nanobelts successfully using thermal evaporation method. Mn can dope effectively into ZnSe crystal when MnCl2 or Mn(CH3COO)2 were used as dopants in the source material. EDS mapping indicates that the distribution of Mn is inhomogeneous in the nanobelt. All of these doped nanobelts grew along the <111> direction.

Clustering was done with tclust, which proceeds by a transitive a

Clustering was done with tclust, which proceeds by a transitive approach (minimum overlap: 60 bp at 20 bp maximum of the end of the sequence). Assembly was done with CAP3 (minimum similarity 94%). To detect unigene similarities with other species, several blasts (with high cut-off e-values) were performed against the following

databases: NCBI nr (blastx (release: 1 March 2011); e-value < 5, HSP length > 33aa), Refseq genomic database (blastn, e-value < 10), Unigene division Arthropods (tblastx, #8 Aedes aegypti, #37 Anopheles gambiae, #3 Apis mellifera, #3 Bombyx mori, #53 Drosophila melanogaster, #9 Tribolium castaneum; e-value < 5), Nasonia vitripennis Nvit OGS_v1.0 (CDS predicted by Gnomon (NCBI)) and Wolbachia sequences from Genbank (blastn (release 164); e-value < e-20). Gene Ontology annotation was carried out using Blast2go software [38]. During the first step (mapping), AZD5363 price a pool of candidate GO terms was obtained for each unigene by retrieving GO terms associated with the hits obtained after a blastx search against NCBI nr. During the second step (annotation), reliable GO terms were selected from the pool of candidate GO terms by applying the Score Function (SF) of Blast2go with permissive annotation parameters (EC_weight=1, e-value_filter=0.1, GO_weight=5, HSP/hit coverage cut-off=0%). In the third step of the annotation procedure, the pool of GO terms selected during the annotation step was

merged with GO terms associated with Interpro domain (Interpro predictions based on the longest ORF). Finally, Tofacitinib research buy the Annex augmentation step was run to modulate the annotation by adding GO terms derived from implicit relationships between GO terms [39]. In order to extract the

biological processes and molecular functions statistically over-represented in aposymbiotic libraries, we performed a hyper-geometrical test between GO terms from the aposymbiotic libraries (OA1 and OA2) and those from the OS library, which corresponds to natural physiological conditions. The p-values were then adjusted using Bonferroni’s correction. Pazopanib manufacturer To perform a functional enrichment analysis of the unigenes extracted from the SSH, we used the FatiGO web tool [40] on the OS library. With respect to the GO analysis, levels 3 and 6 were chosen to describe biological processes, and level 4 was chosen to describe molecular functions. Gene expression measurement by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) We sought to determine the effect of symbiosis on the expression of a set of candidate genes involved in immunity, programmed cell death and oogenesis. For that purpose, we first compared gene expression between symbiotic and aposymbiotic samples, in ovaries (to characterize the dependence phenotype induced by Wolbachia) and then in males (to provide additional information concerning the specificity of the process). In order to limit the influence of the presence of eggs in symbiotic vs.

From the current transients (inset in Figure 3), all films show a

From the current transients (inset in Figure 3), all films show anodic photocurrents upon illumination, corresponding to the n-type photoresponse of TiO2. For TiO2-1 film, the initial anodic photocurrent spike is very strong and subsequently decays quickly. Simultaneously, a cathodic overshoot appears immediately when the light is switched off. The anodic current spike and cathodic

overshoot are occasionally observed selleck chemicals in many cases, and which is generally regarded as the indication of the surface recombination of photogenerated charges [24–26]. A decay of anodic current immediately after the initial rise of the signal when the light is switched on is attributed to photogenerated electron transfer to the holes trapped at the surface states or the intermediates which originated from the reaction of holes at the semiconductor surface. With the accumulation of the intermediates, the electrons are trapped by the surface states, resulting in an anodic current spike. Owing to the same reason, the intermediates or trapped holes would induce a cathodic overshoot when switching off the light. The obvious strong spike for the illuminated TiO2-1 film suggests the slow consumption see more of holes and the corresponding oxidation process, which is related to the activity of the surface

TiO2 layer. The poor crystallinity, Buspirone HCl large TiO2 particles, and the small amount of TiO2 in the directly oxidized film would result in the poor photoelectrochemical performance. However, the transient of NP-TiO2 film is different, displaying much smaller anodic current spike and more stable photocurrent. The photocurrent density is calculated as the difference of the current density upon illumination at the center time and in the

dark, which is shown as a graph in Figure 3. NP-TiO2 film possesses the highest photocurrent density, which is about 1.2 mA/cm2, significantly higher than the corresponding TiO2-1 and TiO2-2 films. The efficient photoelectrochemical performance can be attributed to the porous structure of NP-TiO2 film, in which the interaction time between TiO2 and light would be increased due to the trapped photons inside the pores, corresponding to its enhanced optical absorption. Figure 3 A comparison of photocurrent density of various films. The inset shows a comparison of the current transients (applied potential: 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The performance of the NP-TiO2 film was further tested by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of RhB solutions. The decolorization of RhB by photolysis is low, only 5.2% reduction observed after 2 h of irradiation (Figure 4). Without an applied bias, by illuminating the solution with the NP-TiO2 film, the decolorization efficiency only improved to about 11%.

The ingested

material is present in the middle and poster

The ingested

material is present in the middle and posterior regions of the cell. B. Surface striations (arrowhead) and a longitudinal rod-like structure (double arrowhead) indicative of a feeding apparatus. C. AF and PF emerging from the anterior opening. The arrowhead shows striation on the surface of the cell. D. Bacteria (arrowheads) that have disassociated Metabolism inhibitor with C. aureus. E. A cell undergoing division showing a longitudinal cleavage furrow starts from the anterior end. The ingested material is present in the middle and posterior regions of the cell. F. Clear cytoplasm extruded from posterior of the cell. G. Bright orange extracellular matrix. H. Bundle of extrusomes (double arrowhead) that have been discharged from extrusomal pocket through the anterior opening. (bars = 10 μm, A-C at same scale). Figure 2 Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of Calkinsia aureus. A. The ventral side buy Galunisertib of C. aureus showing the anterior opening, a longitudinal groove and epibiotic bacteria. B. The dorsal side of the C. aureus showing the epibiotic bacteria. (A, B bars = 10 μm). C. High magnification SEM of the

anterior vestibular opening showing the absence of epibiotic bacteria on the extracellular matrix (arrow). (bar = 3 μm). Figure 3 Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) showing the general morphology of Calkinsia aureus. A. Sagittal TEM showing the nucleus (N) with condensed chromatin and a conspicuous nucleolus (Nu), a battery of extrusomes (E), the vestibulum (V) located on the dorsal side of the cell, ingested material and epibiotic bacteria on the extracellular matrix. The extrusomal pocket (EP) branched from the vestibulum (V) (bar = 4 μm). B. Ingested material containing diatom frustules (arrow). (bar = 2 μm). IKBKE C. Cross section of the cell through the nucleus (N), the battery of extrusomes (E), the flagellar

pocket (FLP) and the feeding pocket (FdP). (bar = 2 μm). D. High magnification view through the vestibulum (V) that is opened on the ventral side of the cell. E. High magnification view through the anterior opening showing the termination of the extracellular matrix (double arrowhead) and fine somatonemes (S) or hair-like structures on the perforated matrix (arrows) that is not covered with epibiotic bacteria. The arrowhead indicates the supportive microtubular sheet that lines the inside of the cytostome and turns along the cell surface. (D, E, bars = 1 μm). F. Hairs (arrow) on the wall of the vestibulum (V). (bar = 1 μm). G. Cross section showing the battery of tubular extrusomes (E). (bar = 2 μm). Cell Surface and Extracellular Matrix The longitudinally arranged, epibiotic bacteria consisted of only one rod-shaped morphotype (3–5 μm long and 0.350 μm wide) that collectively formed a dense coat over the entire surface of the host cell (Figures 2, 3A, 3C). At least 128 epibiotic bacteria were observed in transverse sections through one cell of C. aureus (Figure 3C).

These two (including related C jejuni subgroups) are associated

These two (including related C. jejuni subgroups) are associated with specific genetic markers. CC 21 isolates as well as the vast majority of other C. jejuni isolates are positive for cj1365c (cjj81176-1367/1371), cj1585c, cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, and cj0755/cfrA (Additional file 2: Table S2) [18, 19]. In contrast to that, MLST-CC 45 isolates and the related isolates of the MLST-CC 22, 42, and 283 are predominantly Ivacaftor concentration negative for these marker genes; with the exception

that MLST-CC 22 and 42 isolates harbor cj1365c. In these isolates the oxidoreductase gene cj1585c is replaced by the tripartite anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide oxidoreductase dmsA to –D facilitating an alternative anaerobic metabolic pathway. Additionally this isolate group has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of ggt and ansB. The cj1365c-positive isolates of MLST-CC 22 and 42 are also cstII-positive, whereas MLST-CC 45 and 282 isolates have no LOS-sialyltransferase genes [18, 19]. Theses isolates positive for ggt but negative for fucP could be significantly associated with a higher rate of hospitalizations and bloody diarrhea and bear apparently a higher pathogenic potential for humans [27]. There are also smaller evolutionary intermediate isolate groups, which are for example positive for dmsA, ansB, cj1365c and fucP but not for ggt[18, 19]. Furthermore, MLST-ST 21 isolates have a variation of TLP7, which is expressed

as dimer [18, 41]. In this group buy CX-4945 of isolates the most in vitro hyperinvasive strains can be found [42]. These isolates are mostly responsible for outbreaks associated with cattle [17]. We have shown in this study that biomarker shifts can be used to discriminate not only between the vast

majority of C. jejuni isolates and this C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism (ggt +), which was shown to have a higher pathogenic potential for humans [27], we were even able to discriminate between MLST-CC 45/282 isolates and MLST-CC 22/42 isolates. MLST-CC 22/42 isolates positive for the LOS-sialyltransferase cstII could be associated with GBS and higher host cell invasiveness [19]. Furthermore, we were able to identify another biomarker ion (m/z = 5303) that differentiates the subset of MLST ST 21 isolates associated with the dimeric TLP7m+c-variant. It should be noted that the biomarker ions are not based on the expression of the marker genes used, as the proteins encoded in the marker genes are of entirely different sizes than the observed masses, but there is an obvious evolutionary association between the presence of specific marker genes and some of the biomarker ions. Conclusions In conclusion, our study demonstrates that it is possible to discriminate specific subtypes within the C. jejuni species that have a different metabolism and different clinical relevance even using smear spectra. Phyloproteomics corresponds only partial to phylogenetics.

Peroxisome proliferators

activated receptor alpha (PPARα)

Peroxisome proliferators

activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a ligand-inducible nuclear transcription factor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of tumor including lung cancer [7]. However, the exact role that PPARα signaling plays involved in non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) biology and the mechanisms by which PPARα ligands suppress tumor cell growth have not been selleck chemicals llc fully elucidated. A report showed that NAC could increase PPARα activity [8]. Herein, our results show that NAC inhibits expression of PDK1 expression through PPARα-mediated induction of p53 and inhibition of p65 protein expression. Methods Culture and chemicals NSCLC cell lines H1650, A549, H1792, H2106, H460 and H358 were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA), and were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, HEPES buffer, 50 IU/mL penicillin/streptomycin, and 1 μg amphotericin. All

cell lines have been tested and authenticated for absence Compound Library datasheet of Mycoplasma, genotypes, drug response, and morphology in the Laboratory in May 2010 and April 2012. Polyclonal antibodies specific for PDK1, PPARα, p65, p50 and p53 were purchased from Cell Signaling Inc (Beverly, MA, USA). The Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay kit was obtained from Promega (Shanghai, China). N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC), GW6471, fenofibrate and all other chemicals were purchased from Sigma Chemicals, Inc. (St. Louis, through MO, USA) unless otherwise indicated. Treatment with PDK1, PPARα, p65 and p53 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) The siRNA human PDPK1 (EHU071261) was ordered from Sigma, PPARα siRNA (sc-36307), and p65 siRNA (sc-29410) were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Signal Silence p53 siRNA (#6231) was ordered from Cell signaling. The control nonspecific siRNA oligonucleotide (D-001206-13-05) was purchased from Dharmacon, Inc. (Lafayette, CO, USA). For the transfection procedure, cells were grown to 60% confluence, and PDK1, PPARα and p53 siRNAs and control siRNA

were transfected using the oligofectamine reagent (Invitrogen). Briefly, oligofectamine reagent was incubated with serum–free medium for 15 min. Subsequently, a mixture of respective siRNA was added. After incubation for 30 min at room temperature, the mixture was diluted with medium and added to each well. The final concentration of siRNAs in each well was 70–100 nM. After culturing for 30 h, cells were washed, resuspended in new culture media in the control or treated plates for an additional 24 or 48 h for the following experiments. Western blot analysis Equal amounts of protein from whole cell lysates were solubilized in 2 × SDS-sample buffer, separated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The separated proteins were transferred onto nitrocellulose using a Bio-Rad Trans Blot semidry transfer apparatus for 1 h at 25 voltages, blocked with Blotto with 5% nonfat dry milk and 0.1% Tween 20 for overnight at 4 C, and washed with wash buffer.

Species that are already categorized as threatened are particular

Species that are already categorized as threatened are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of any climate change. Projected changes in the climate, combined with land-use change

and the spread of invasive alien species, are likely to limit the capability of some species to migrate, and this will lead to further acceleration in the rate of species loss (Singh and Kushwaha 2008). However, the links between biodiversity and climate change run both ways; biodiversity is threatened by climate change, but in some cases the proactive management of biodiversity may reduce the impacts of climate change. However, there will be ‘winners’ as well as ‘losers’. There are several reasons why plants and Palbociclib order animals in particular may not be able to adapt to the current phase of global warming. In particular, the rapid pace of change means that many species will simply be unable to adapt quickly enough to the new conditions, or to move to regions more suited for their survival. Equally important, the massive changes humans have made to landscapes, river basins, and the oceans of the world, have limited the survival options previously available to a species under pressure from a changing climate. The formation and maintenance of soils suitable for agriculture,

availability of medicinal plants, provision of freshwater, and income from ecotourism, for example, are all underpinned by complex food-webs involving the interaction of species ranging from microscopic bacteria, fungi and protists to the largest animals on Earth. The full extent of organismal interactions in almost all ecosystems is so poorly known that it is difficult to produce meaningful models and predict outcomes if ecological parameters change; there are so many kinds of organisms involved, many of which have unknown

roles, that data on all pertinent variables cannot be obtained. For that reason, the precautionary principle has to be high on the priority list of matters to be taken into account in conserving biodiversity. It is the microclimate, however, that plays a crucial role and in the Rutecarpine maintenance of ecosystem structure and ecological processes. A sound knowledge of the microclimate is vital to the understanding of patterns and the processes in ecosystems, theoretical modelling and management decision making. Behera et al. (2012) studied the impact of key microclimatic variables on the forest community and vice versa. They measured understory PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), ambient CO2, air temperature, surface soil temperature, and air absolute humidity during post-rainy and mid-winter seasons; and observed that PAR and ambient CO2 make the greatest contribution to the microclimate in defining forest community and plant species associates. The relationships between biodiversity, productivity and climate are complex.

Cell viability was also evaluated through the measurement of mito

Cell viability was also evaluated through the measurement of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity using the colorimetric WST-1 assay (Figure 1B). Data confirmed that CF treatment induced cell viability RXDX-106 solubility dmso inhibition up-and-over 60% in U937 cells after 72 h of incubation. To investigate the selectivity of CF treatment towards tumor cells, human healthy lymphocytes were seeded in the presence of the same concentration of CF up to 96 h; data revealed no significant differences between untreated

and treated cells, confirming that CF did not affect healthy lymphocyte growth (Figure 2). Figure 1 Significant inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation (A) and viability (B) after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with CF in comparison with untreated cells (control), as evaluated by cell counting by Fostamatinib trypan blue dye exclusion and WST-1 reagent, respectively. Data are expressed as mean ± SD of at least three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 vs. untreated cells. Figure 2 Lymphocyte cell growth in the presence of CF (5 μl/ml) in comparison with untreated cells (control). No effects were observed up to 96 h after CF administration to isolated lymphocytes as a non-tumor cell system Data are expressed as mean ± SD of at least three independent experiments. These results are in accordance with the growth-inhibitory properties

of Lithothamnion calcareum, the red algae from which the organic and inorganic components of CF are extracted [19, 20]. Indeed, the mineral-rich material derived from the algae has been shown to suppress the growth of a series of human colon cancer cell lines in vitro[19], as well as to protect mice against neoplastic and preneoplastic proliferative liver lesions [20]. To clarify whether CF was able to reduce cancer cell viability by promoting apoptotic cell death, two classical

Racecadotril markers of apoptosis were determined. Caspase-3 is considered to be the most important effector of apoptosis and a marker for both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways [11]. Noteworthy, we evidenced that CF treatment significantly stimulated caspase-3 activity in the three leukemia cell lines as compared to the respective untreated controls (Figure 3). Figure 3 Significant increment of caspase-3 activity in leukemia cells after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with CF (5 μl/ml) in comparison with untreated cells (control). Data are expressed as mean ± SD of at least three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 vs. untreated cells. On the other hand, the detection of the internucleosomal DNA cleavage (or DNA laddering) is a common hallmark of cells undergoing late-stage apoptosis [11]. To verify if CF could induce DNA fragmentation and thus to confirm whether apoptosis occurred, leukemia cells exposed to CF treatment were assessed for DNA laddering by agarose gel electrophoresis (Figure 4).