Items were a combination of closed and open-ended questions The

Items were a combination of closed and open-ended questions. The response rate was 53% (10 out of 19). Through this survey, the Task Force assessed participating districts’ views about the SUA process; the survey included questions about barriers facing each district and planned use for each of the SUAs. Results from the survey helped inform the Task Force about school districts’ needs and concerns regarding the agreements. The Task Force applied these findings, along with other school information, to help characterize the types of legal clauses in the agreements,

which addressed common issues such as cost-sharing, liability, and facility maintenance. The challenges addressed through the survey were concerns regarding: operations/maintenance, liability, staffing, vandalism, budget, and safety. This information provided a framework from which to expand upon and to identify additional barriers that may face school districts

in establishing check details a sustainable partnership through a SUA. From 2010 to 2012, the JUMPP Task Force facilitated 18 SUAs in the seven school districts. These 18 SUAs included programmatic and open-gate agreements and varied in terms of duration, scope and codified arrangements with the community. Although a few of the agreements were initiated prior to the start of RENEW, most were started and completed with JUMPP Task Force support (i.e., JUMPP provided staffing, technical assistance, or both). The shared-use framework of JUMPP allowed selected districts selleck products the flexibility to use a variety of existing mechanisms (e.g., civic center permit, space lease agreement, Memorandum of Understanding [MOU], and other formalized agreements) to implement arrangements that mutually benefited each school and the community partner(s). For the purposes of this article, all 18 JUMPP-assisted agreements were grouped under the

general category of “SUAs”, as long as they provided the desired outcome of increasing community access to school property for physical activity, with a focus on children and adults, regardless Rebamipide of legal status. To be included in the analysis, JUMPP-assisted SUAs must have been executed by the end of March 2012. Using the challenges listed in the school site and community partner survey as a baseline (operations/maintenance, liability, staffing, vandalism, budget, and safety), we developed a framework from which to evaluate the completed SUAs. Vandalism was incorporated under the safety clause, since it seems to encompass the concerns covered by the clause. The remaining clauses came from reviewing tools provided by other organizations that have conducted extensive research on shared-use documents (ChangeLab Solutions, 2009a and Vincent and Cooper, 2008). Clauses that overlapped the model agreements provided by ChangeLab Solutions and were identified as important in other shared-use partnership tools were included in the evaluation.

Results: Compared to the control group, systolic and diastolic bl

Results: Compared to the control group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with unloaded breathing by means of 13.5 mmHg (95% CI 11.3 to 15.7) and 7.0 mmHg (95% CI 5.5 to 8.5), respectively (laboratory measures). With loaded breathing, the reductions were greater at 18.8 mmHg (95% CI 16.1 to 21.5) and 8.6 mmHg (95% CI 6.8 to 10.4), respectively. The improvement in Gefitinib systolic blood pressure was 5.3 mmHg (95% CI 1.0 to 9.6) greater with loaded compared to unloaded breathing. Heart rate declined by 8 beats/min (95% CI 6.5 to 10.3) with unloaded breathing, and 9 beats/min (95% CI 5.6 to 12.2) with loaded breathing. Very similar measures of blood pressure and heart

rate were obtained by the patients at home. Conclusion: Home-based training with a simple device is

well tolerated by patients and produces clinically valuable reductions in blood pressure. Adding an inspiratory load of 20 cmH2O enhanced the decrease in systolic blood pressure. Trial registration: NCT007919689. The error occurred in the final page make up. The journal apologises to the authors and to our readers. “
“In our systematic review (Leaver et al 2010) published in Vol 55 No 2 of this journal there were two material errors that occurred during the data extraction phase of the study. These errors, which occurred due to misinterpretation of the outcomes reported Capmatinib in two studies, impacted on our DNA ligase meta-analysis of the effectiveness of

laser therapy for neck pain. In the pilot study by Chow et al (2004), Northwick Park Disability scores were reported as percentages. In the main trial by the same author (Chow et al 2006) it was not apparent that these data were presented as raw scores and were incorrectly extracted as percentage scores. Additionally, in the trial by Gur et al (2004), disability outcomes reported using Neck Pain and Disability Index met our inclusion criteria and were excluded erroneously. We have subsequently conducted meta-analysis of disability outcomes for laser therapy with these data extraction errors corrected. Disability outcomes for laser therapy at short-term follow up are presented in the revision to Figure 4 (below) and at medium-term in the revision to Figure 5 (below) and in the results tables in the eAddenda. The pooled outcomes from three trials (Dundar et al 2007, Gur et al 2004, Ozdemir et al 2001) showed no significant difference between laser and control (WMD –26, 95% CI –58 to 6) at the conclusion of a course of treatment. Pooled outcomes from three trials (Chow et al 2004, Chow et al 2006, Gur et al 2004) that reported medium-term disability outcomes showed a statistically significant difference in favour of laser therapy over control (WMD –10, 95% CI –15 to –6). Full numeric data for the amended meta-analysis are available in the eAppendix to this paper on the journal website.

Oswestry scores may be categorised as: minimally disabled (0–10%)

Oswestry scores may be categorised as: minimally disabled (0–10%), moderately disabled (20–40%), severely disabled (40–60%), crippled (60–80%), or bedbound (80–100%) (Fritz and Irrgang 2001). The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire is the other self-administered disability measure. It is scored on a 24-point scale, where 0 represents no disability and 24 represents severe disability (Roland and Morris 1983). Pain was recorded by the participant using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, where

0 represented no pain and 10 represented unbearable pain. Fear of movement and of reinjury were measured using the 17-item Tampa Scale for Kinesophobia. Each item is rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. This measure has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, responsiveness,

concurrent this website validity, and predictive validity (Miller et al 1991). Trunk flexion range of motion was measured with a Fleximeterb, which is attached to the body and determines the range of motion on an angular scale using a gravitational mechanism. The range of back flexion movement was measured with the patient in orthostatic position with their knees extended and arms crossed across the thorax. The fleximeter was positioned laterally in the thoracic region at breast height (García et al 2011). Isometric endurance of the trunk muscles was measured in seconds using the McQuade test, in which the participant holds their trunk isometrically Obeticholic Acid purchase off the floor until fatigue (Cantarero-Villanueva et al 2011, McGill et al 1999). People with low back pain typically rate an improvement of 6 points on the Oswestry scale as at least ‘moderately’ better (Fritz and Irrgang 2001) and this has therefore been considered a ‘worthwhile effect’ (Lewis et al 2011, Iles et al 2011). Therefore, we sought a difference of 6 points on the Oswestry scale. A total of 54 participants would provide 80% power to detect a difference between groups of 6 points on the modified Oswestry scale as significant

at a two-sided significance level, Montelukast Sodium assuming a standard deviation of 7.7 points (Cleland et al 2009). To allow for 10% loss to follow-up, we increased the sample size to 60. Baseline demographic characteristics are reported with descriptive statistics. Separate 2-by-3 mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine treatment effects (dependent variables), with group (experimental or control) as between-subject variable and time (baseline, immediate post-treatment and at 1 month follow-up) as within-subject variable. The change in each group at each time point is reported as a mean with standard deviation. The effect of the intervention at each time point is reported as a mean between-group difference in change from baseline, with 95% confidence interval.

After reading abstracts and reviewing the full text, 33 studies (

After reading abstracts and reviewing the full text, 33 studies (26 – India, 5 – Bangladesh, 2 – Pakistan) fulfilled the a priori selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis ( Table 1). Fourteen of the titles represented recent data not available in past reviews [18], [37] and [63] and included studies using more advanced molecular methods for strain characterization. Both frontline urban hospitals and rural community health centers served as surveillance sites for collecting samples. Studies characterized both symptomatic

and asymptomatic rotavirus cases from rainy and dry seasons. A large variation in laboratory methods to detect rotavirus types was observed, with earlier studies (before 1994) relying principally on ELISA and PAGE, and later studies utilizing more advanced molecular RT-PCR techniques. Prior to 1994, two studies Palbociclib ic50 utilized PAGE, two utilized ELISA, and three utilized RT-PCR. From 1995 to 1999, 11 studies were published with 4 reporting PAGE techniques and 6 reporting RT-PCR; one study did not specify laboratory methods. The 15 studies from 2000 to 2009 relied entirely upon RT-PCR

for genotyping, which represents the first time period that all results were fully based on RT-PCR techniques. Overall, due to their later discovery in humans, 25 of the 33 studies (76%) did not use typing agents for detection of G12 while 11 of the earlier studies (33%) did not determine the G9 type. This is reflected in the proportion of “untypeable” strains that were BMS-354825 supplier observed. When untyped strains were considered in the denominator of all tested specimens, 23.7% were untypeable prior to 2000. However, after 2000, when molecular typing methods were used and included primers for the G9 and G12 strains, the proportion of untypeable strains was reduced to 13.7%. A similar trend was noted in the results for the VP4 P-type, where 21.3% of strains could not be typed before 2000, compared to 16.3% after 2000, probably due to the wider range of primer sets used. The 33 studies provide data on 9,153 rotavirus samples examined for the VP7 G-type, while 21 studies present results

for 4,842 VP4 P-types. Among typeable G-samples (n = 7703) over the period covered in this review (1983–2009), the four most globally Ketanserin common types, G1 (31.4%), G2 (29.4%), G3 (3.6%), and G4 (13.8%), represented approximately 78% of total samples. During this same time period, G9 (11.2%), G-Mixed (6.9%), and G12 (3.7%) were also identified ( Table 2). For the P-types, between 1983 and 2009, P[4] (29.3%) and P[8] (44.7%) represented approximately 75% of all the 4148 typeable P-strains, with P[6] (15.2%) and P-Mixed (10.8%) also present ( Table 3). However, the percentages of uncommon G-types and mixed P-types reported may not accurately reflect the true proportions circulating in the population due to the number of untypeable strains showing current techniques.

Animals were divided into six groups each of six animals viz: Gro

Animals were divided into six groups each of six animals viz: Group – I, Normal control; Group – II, Experimental control; Group – III, Standard control and three treated (paracetamol + plant

extract suspension) groups. Group – I (Normal control) received a single oral dose of normal saline 10 ml/kg only; Group – II (Experimental control) received a single toxic dose of paracetamol in 0.5% CMC (3 g/kg body weight, orally); Group – III (Standard control) received a single toxic dose of paracetamol as per Group – II along with Silymarin in 0.5% CMC (25 g/kg body weight, orally) selleck chemicals llc and three treated groups viz. Group – IV, V and VI each received a single toxic dose of paracetamol as per Group – II along with ethanolic E. viride roots extract suspension in 0.5%

CMC at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight p. o. (post esophagus) respectively. Treatment with plant extract was started after 24 h of paracetamol administration. Total duration of treatment was 7 days. 19 Rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were withdrawn by cardiac puncture in heparinized tubes and were centrifuge at 3000 × g at 4 °C for 10 min to obtain serum. The liver function markers such as AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin were measured according to the standard SAHA HDAC concentration procedures given along with the kits purchased. Various biochemical parameters evaluated were DPPH-scavenging activity,20 superoxide radical scavenging activity,21 scavenging Dichloromethane dehalogenase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),22 hydroxy radical scavenging activity,23 nitric oxide radical inhibition assay,24 lipid

peroxidation inhibitory activity25 and histopathological studies (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). The data of biochemical estimations were reported as mean ± SEM. The statistical significance was determined by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests. P < 0.001 was used to determine statistical significance. The ethanolic extract of E. viride roots, when orally administered in the dose of 2000 mg/kg body wt. did not produce any significant changes in the autonomic or behavioral responses, including death during the observation period. Administration of paracetamol produced significant hepatotoxicity in experimental animals, as is evident by an elevation of the serum marker enzymes namely AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin in paracetamol treated rats. Administration of ethanolic extracts of E. viride roots at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg remarkably prevented paracetamol-induced elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin ( Table 1). The antioxidant activity of extract has been evaluated by using a range of in vitro free radical scavenging assay models. The IC50 values were found to be 33.59 μg/ml in hydrogen peroxide, 24.37 μg/ml in lipid peroxidation, 68.75 μg/ml in nitric oxide, 49.

The four fractions obtained were analysed with standard screening

The four fractions obtained were analysed with standard screening tests to detect the principal secondary metabolites. From residues of the ethanol extractions lipids were extracted with chloroform–methanol (2:1).12 Flavonoids were analysed using planar chromatography with two different mobile phases

(BAW: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, 4:1:5; Forestal: acetic acid–conc. HCl–water, 30:3:10). For lipids, a one-dimensional system was used on Silica gel G60 impregnated with ammonium sulphate, with benzene–acetone–water (30:91:8) as mobile phase.13 Pigments were determined from the soluble fractions in dichloromethane in Silica gel G60-calcium carbonate (2:1) with petroleum ether–acetone–i-propanol (35.5:14:0.5) used as mobile phase. 14 Furthermore, the second exhaustive extraction of pigments was performed using acetone and MgCO3 to avoid the accidental formation of chlorophyll metabolites. The extracts were centrifuged at 670 × g, dried under vacuum and resuspended in 500 μl of acetone. The extracts where analysed by HPLC-RP-DAD. 15 The pigments were identified by co-chromatography with appropriate standards during elution, and by comparing their absorption spectra with reference standards. Standards and extracts were run through a C18 column, using a solution of acetonitrile: water (90:10) as mobile phase, at 1 ml/min flow rate and readings

were taken at 436 nm. Bosutinib in vivo The scavenging activity on diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals of ethanolic and dichloromethane fractions (A and B respectively, Fig. 1) was assayed. The radical scavenging activities expressed either as percentage inhibition of DPPH were calculated.16 The SC50 values

were calculated by linear regression.17 Only high polar extracts (Fraction A) were analysed by the wheat rootlet growth inhibition bioassay (Triticum sativum) 18 since assay requires the sample to be soluble in water. Vinblastine sulphate was used as a positive control. The toxicity of the extracts was monitored by the brine shrimp lethality test.19 The efficiency of biomass production and the four fractions obtained is shown in Tables 1 and 2. The phytochemical screening showed in all samples the presence of carbohydrates of low molecular weight, lipids, and steroids. Cardenolids were only present in the exponential phase samples, and triterpenes only in the exponential phase samples of the bleached strains. With the exception of the MAT (ph), tannins were present in the exponential phase of all the other samples. In contrast, flavonoids were only detected in the stationary phase samples of photosynthetic strains (Table 3). The presence in all photosynthetic samples of chlorophylls a, b; β, β-carotenes; diadinoxanthin and neoxanthin was verified by TLC. The second analysis performed by RP-HPLC-DAD allowed yields between 33% (UTEX-h-ST) and 68.8% (MAT-ph-ST). Table 4 shows for each pigment detected the retention times (RT), the real absorption maxima in the elution solvent, and the extraction yields.

In the meantime, clinicians should, if they choose to attempt to

In the meantime, clinicians should, if they choose to attempt to prevent injury with orthoses, keep cost in mind. “
“Summary of: Troosters T et al (2010) Resistance training prevents deterioration in quadriceps muscle function during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181: 1072–1077. [Prepared by Kylie Hill, CAP Editor.] Question: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hospitalised with an acute exacerbation, does resistance training preserve quadriceps muscle force or change markers of systemic inflammation or muscle metabolism? Design: Randomised

controlled trial with concealed allocation.

Neither the investigators nor the participants were blinded to group allocation. Setting: Tertiary hospital in Leuven, BTK inhibitor Belgium. Participants: Key inclusion criteria were: people with COPD, hospitalised with an acute exacerbation, aged <85 years, not hospitalised in the previous 14 days, not participating in a rehabilitation program, and no co-morbid conditions precluding participation in resistance training. Randomisation of 40 patients allocated equal numbers to the intervention and groups. Interventions: Both groups received standard doses of oral corticosteroids and physiotherapy limited to airway clearance techniques and breathing exercises. In addition, each day, the Bay 11-7085 intervention group performed three sets of eight repetitions

of quadriceps resistance exercise, at a load set at 70% of the one repetition maximum. The load was progressed according to symptoms of dyspnoea and fatigue. Training sessions were supervised by physiotherapists. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was maximum isometric quadriceps force. Secondary outcomes included six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1. In a sub-group of patients (n = 20), gene expression for anabolism and catabolism were obtained via biopsy of vastus lateralis. Results: Data were available on 36 patients at the time of hospital discharge. At discharge, the mean difference in the magnitude of change in quadriceps force in the intervention group relative to the control group was 10.7% (95% CI 0.9 to 20.7%). The intervention group demonstrated a predominant expression of anabolic markers, whereas the control group tended to demonstrate a predominance of catabolic markers. There were no other significant between-group differences. Conclusion: Resistance training for patients with COPD who were hospitalised for an exacerbation preserved quadriceps force without increasing biomarkers of systemic inflammation.

jop physiotherapy asn au We are grateful to Jan Mehrholz and Ray We are grateful to Jan Mehrholz and Raymond Tong for providing information and/or data. “
“More than 100 million people in Asia were living with diabetes mellitus in 2007 (Chan et al 2009). In Singapore, the ageing of the population together with the rise in rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle parallelled the rise of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. selleckchem The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2004 was

8.2% in adults aged 18 to 69 years (Lim et al 2004). Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease (Wang et al 2005) and, in Singapore, one-third of patients developing cardiovascular disease were reported to have underlying Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Lee et al 2001). Singaporeans have a higher percentage of body fat for the same body mass index as Caucasians (Deurenberg-Yap et al 2003), and those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have significantly higher body mass index and

waist:hip ratio compared with healthy adults (Lim et al 2004). Aerobic exercise is known to reduce weight and maintain good glycaemic control, and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients (Lee et al 2001). Studies involving exercise as a therapeutic intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have focused primarily on aerobic training (Boule et al 2003, Snowling and Hopkins 2006). The beneficial effects of aerobic training on the metabolic profile include reduced HbA1c, lowered blood pressure and resting heart rate, improved cardiac output and oxygen extraction, favorable lipid profile, and reduction of selleck kinase inhibitor weight and waist circumference (Albright et al 2000, Boule et al 2001, Lim et al 2004, Sigal et al 2007, Snowling and Hopkins 2006, Tresierras and Balady 2009). In spite of the reported beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, adoption of aerobic activities may be difficult for some patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially those who are older

and obese (Willey and Singh 2003). In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of resistance exercise in the management of diabetes as it appears to improve insulin sensitivity (Tresierras and Balady 2009). While the American College of Sports Medicine recommended resistance exercise at least twice a week (Albright et al 2000), the American Diabetes Association recommended next it three times per week. These recommendations were based primarily on findings from two trials comparing aerobic and resistance exercise (Cauza et al 2005, Dunstan et al 2002). However, neither study attempted to make the modes of exercise comparable in intensity or duration. Furthermore, some studies have included both modes in the same intervention arm (Cuff et al 2003, Maiorana et al 2000), thus limiting our ability to compare the two. Other data suggest that progressive resistance exercise has benefits in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes (Neil and Ronald 2006, Irvine and Taylor 2009).

Two groups received a formulation containing 10 or 30 μg of each

Two groups received a formulation containing 10 or 30 μg of each dPly and PhtD (dPly/PhtD-10 and dPly/PhtD-30). Two further groups received a formulation containing the PS-conjugates of PHiD-CV (serotypes 1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) and 10 or 30 μg of each dPly and PhtD (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 and PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30). All investigational vaccines were adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate. The fifth group received the licensed PHiD-CV [20]. All vaccines were manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines. No other vaccines were

co-administered. Solicited FG4592 and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the participant’s parents in paper diary cards that were returned to the investigator at the next study visit. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded within seven days post-vaccination and unsolicited AEs within

31 days post-vaccination. Symptom intensity was graded on a scale of 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). Serious adverse events (SAEs), defined as any medical occurrence that resulted in death, disability or incapacity, was life-threatening, or required hospitalization, were recorded over the whole Fludarabine study period. Blood samples were collected pre-vaccination, one month post-dose 2, and pre- and one month post-booster. Serum samples were stored at −20 °C until analysis at GlaxoSmithKline’s laboratory, Rixensart, Belgium and SGS laboratory, Wavre, Belgium. Antibodies were quantified using an in-house multiplex assay coated with protein D (PD), non-detoxified pneumolysin (Ply) and PhtD, with a cut-off of 112 LU/mL for PD, 599 LU/mL for Ply and 391 LU/mL for PhtD. These cut-offs were based on the lower limit of quantification [21], the global

variability of the assay at the highest dilution and the lower limit of linearity. Serotype-specific anti-capsular antibodies against the 10 PS-conjugates and two cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 19A) were measured using a GlaxoSmithKline 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a cut-off of 0.05 μg/mL. An antibody concentration of 0.2 μg/mL measured by the 22F-ELISA is equivalent to the antibody concentration of 0.35 μg/mL measured by the non-22F ELISA of the World Health Organization reference laboratory [22]. Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) for the above-mentioned antibodies was measured secondly by a pneumococcal killing assay with a cut-off opsonic titer of 8, described previously [23]. Safety and reactogenicity analyses were performed on the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), comprising all toddlers with at least one vaccine dose administration documented. To assess the impact of each protein formulation on the incidence of grade 3 fever (primary objective), the dPly/PhtD-10 and dPly/PhtD-30 groups were pooled, as were the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 and PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 groups, and group differences (pooled dPly/PhtD minus PHiD-CV or pooled PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD minus PHiD-CV) were calculated.

Beads were washed twice and incubated with biotinylated antibodie

Beads were washed twice and incubated with biotinylated antibodies (25 μl/well) for 1 h. After removal of excess antibodies, streptavidin-PE was added for 30 min. The plate was then washed and analysed. The lower detection limits of the assay defined by the manufacturer were 6, 3, 5, 5 and 10 ρg/ml

for IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α, respectively. Differential counts were performed on EDTA-treated blood by using ABX Pentra 60 Hematology Analyzer (Horiba Diagnostic this website Group, France). Due to logistic challenges in the laboratory, haematological analyses were only conducted on blood samples collected after 24 October 2009. Samples with an improper separation and gating of the detected cell subsets as assessed by visual inspection of the scatter plot produced by the ABX Pentra60 were repeated if sufficient amount of blood was available; poor quality analyses were excluded. From the DBSs, RBP and CRP were measured concurrently by a combined simple sandwich ELISA method [8] and [9]. The samples were tested in duplicates with the paired baseline and follow-up samples in the same assay. Samples with

a coefficient of variance >20% were repeated in duplicates. Data was analysed using STATA 12 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). As in our previous study [4], cytokine outcomes were categorised as below versus above the median, and analysed by Poisson regression with robust estimate variance providing prevalence ratios (PR) of being above the median in OPV0 + BCG versus BCG alone recipients. The prevalence of BCG scars or local reactions was analysed by Poisson regression with robust estimate variance. BCG scar size was analysed by linear regression. For every plate analysed on the Luminex instrument, the range of the cytokine analysis assay was defined by the lower and upper range of the standard series after censoring for standard concentrations outside a recovery limit of 80–120% (observed concentration versus expected concentration). If the lower detection limit as defined by the manufacturer was higher than the lower limit inferred from the standard series, the

former was applied. Observations outside this range were considered as non-detectable. Cytokine outcomes with >50% detectable measurements were log-transformed and analysed with Tobit regression to account for observations Adenosine below or above the detection range of the Luminex assay [10]. The estimates were back-transformed to give the geometric mean ratios (GMR) comparing OPV0 + BCG with BCG alone. Hence, a GMR or a PR > 1 may be interpreted as OPV increasing the given outcome. Log-transformed haematological data was analysed with linear regression using bootstrap to obtain confidence intervals (CI). CRP and RBP were analysed by Poisson regression as the risk of having a CRP measurement >5 μg/ml or a RBP level <0.83 μmol/l (vitamin A-deficient [11]). RBP was log-normally distributed and analysed by linear regression.