Results also suggested that general stress plays a (rather minor)

Results also suggested that general stress plays a (rather minor) mediating role in

the relationships between ERI and burnout and particularly between WLI and burnout.\n\nCONCLUSION: For the prevention of chronic stress and burnout one should consider both high efforts put into work as well as all job demands that are competing and interfering with family responsibilities or other private activities should be considered.”
“Purpose Evaluation of the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, time of surgery, morbidities, and other/additional findings during laparoscopy check details for suspected appendicitis.\n\nMethods Prospective evaluation of 148 laparoscopies for suspected acute appendicitis.\n\nResults Laparoscopic appendectomy was safe and cost-effective. No appendiceal stump leaks or wound infections occurred. Of the patients, 4.7%

developed intra-abdominal abscesses. Mean time of all procedures was 47 min: 42 min for simple appendectomies (n=126), 67 min for perforated appendicitis (n=15), and 75 min for converted procedures (n=7). Twenty-one of 148 (14.2%) patients had unexpected findings instead of appendicitis: inflamed epiploic appendices (three times), inflammatory disorders of intestine (five times), PCI-32765 purchase intestinal adhesions (two times), ovarian cysts (six times: one time with mesenteric lymphadenitis, one time ruptured), tubo-ovarian abscess (one time), tubal necrosis (one time), adnexitis with mesenteric lymphadenitis (one time), and acute cholecystitis (one time). These diagnoses might have been missed during conventional open appendectomy and were, if necessary, treated during laparoscopy.\n\nConclusions Laparoscopic appendectomy should be recommended as standard procedure for acute appendicitis.”
“Purpose: Our purpose was to determine whether the local S63845 application of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 accelerates regeneration and remodeling of rotator cuff tendon defects reconstructed with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) grafts in rats. Methods: Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into equal groups undergoing FGF-treated and

FGF-untreated repairs. All rats underwent placement of ail ADM graft for the supraspinatus defect (3 x 5 mm). FGF-2 (100 mu g/kg) in a fibrin sealant was applied to both shoulders in the FGF-treated group, whereas only fibrin sealant was applied in untreated group. At 2, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, 5 rats (10 shoulders) in each group were sacrificed for histologic analysis (3 shoulders) and biomechanical testing (7 shoulders). The controls were 5 unoperated rats (3 histologic and 7 biomechanical control specimens). Results: Unoperated control tendons inserted into the bone by direct insertion; there was a zone of fibrocartilage between the tendon and bone. At 2 weeks, the FGF-treated group had tendon maturing scores similar to those in the untreated group (P>.05).

(C) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the

(C) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hypothesis: This investigation examined the hypothesis EPZ-6438 that the type of preschool

intervention provided to children who receive a cochlear implant affects their language scores at school entry.\n\nBackground: Recent research has documented faster language acquisition when children attend specialized preschool programs beginning at age 3 years. We hypothesized that if similar intervention were initiated before age 3 years, the rate of language acquisition might increase even more.\n\nMethods: Thirty-nine listening and spoken language (LSL) programs located in 20 different states across the United States contributed language test scores for 141 five-and six-year-olds who had used a cochlear implant for at least 1 year. A retrospective analysis compared outcomes at 5 to 6 years based on interventions received each year before age 5 years: 1) individual parent-infant intervention; 2) LSL class with only deaf children, or 3)

LSL class with 1 or more hearing children.\n\nResults: The specific type of intervention at ages 1 and 2 years provided a lasting positive impact on language, at least until kindergarten. The probability that a child would reach normal language levels by kindergarten increased significantly if, at age SB203580 inhibitor 1 year, intervention included a combination of cochlear implant use and parent-infant intervention and, at age 2 years, a LSL class with other deaf children was added.\n\nConclusion: These results favor providing a cochlear implant by age 1 year and supplementing early parent-infant intervention with an intensive toddler class designed specifically

for developing spoken language in children with hearing loss by age 2 years.”
“Biologists have long been concerned with measuring thermal performance curves and limits because of their significance to fitness. Basic experimental design may Liproxstatin-1 concentration have a marked effect on the outcome of such measurements, and this is true especially of the experimental rates of temperature change used during assessments of critical thermal limits to activity. To date, the focus of work has almost exclusively been on the effects of rate variation on mean values of the critical limits.\n\nIf the rate of temperature change used in an experimental trial affects not only the trait mean but also its variance, estimates of heritable variation would also be profoundly affected.

Material and Methods: The aim of this report is to review the

\n\nMaterial and Methods: The aim of this report is to review the current concepts and treatment of asthmatic children, focusing our attention on the treatment

of children in a Department of Pediatric Emergency.\n\nDiscussion: Frequent respiratory infections, personal or familial allergy, disease severity and young age are important factors leading to hospitalization. However, regular clinical follow-up and use of inhaled corticosteroids, the IgE levels and O(2) saturation may reduce the probability of hospitalization during asthma attacks. The diagnosis of asthma in children is based on recognizing a characteristic pattern of episodic respiratory symptoms and signs, in the absence of an alternative explanation for them. The presence of these factors increases the probability OICR-9429 that a child with respiratory symptoms will have asthma. These factors include

age at presentation; sex; severity and frequency of previous Cediranib cost wheezing episodes; coexistence of atopic disease; family history of atopy; and abnormal lung function.\n\nConclusion: Asthma is a chronic condition that often remains uncontrolled for reasons that may be related to the disease process itself, the management decisions of clinicians, the patient’s perceptions of disease control or self-management behaviors, the cost of medications, or a combination of all of these factors. To this end, patients with asthma should be educated not to accept a certain level of symptoms or activity limitations as an inevitable consequence of asthma. Both the levels of current impairment and the future risks (of asthma exacerbations or adverse medication effects) should be used to inform decisions about appropriate levels of asthma therapy, and physicians should be aware of the new medication recommendations.”
“Objectives: Various definitions for distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), meconium ileus equivalent, and constipation in patients with Cystic fibrosis (CF) are used. However, an unequivocal definition for DIOS, meconium

ileus equivalent, and constipation is preferred. The aims of this study were, therefore, to seek GDC-0973 nmr consensus on the definitions for DIOS and Constipation in patients with CF and to determine the incidence, characteristics, and treatment of DIOS in a cohort of paediatric patients with CF.\n\nMethods: During the 2005 European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology. Hepatology, and Nutrition meeting in Porto a group of paediatric gastroenterologists discussed the definition of DIOS and constipation in CF. Subsequently, all patients younger than or equal to IS years with complete DIOS according to the definition agreed upon and diagnosed during the years 2001 to 2005 in 8 CF centres were studied.\n\nResults: Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome was defined as an acute complete or incomplete faecal obstruction in the ileocaecum, whereas constipation was defined as gradual faecal impaction of the total colon.

“N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an intracell

“N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an intracellular protein that is induced under a wide variety of stress and cell growth-regulatory conditions. NDRG1 is up-regulated by cell differentiation signals in various cancer cell lines and suppresses tumor metastasis. Despite its specific role in the molecular cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4D disease, there has been more interest in the gene as a marker of tumor progression and enhancer of cellular differentiation. Because it is strongly up-regulated under hypoxic conditions, and this condition is prevalent in solid tumors, its regulation is somewhat complex, governed by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)- and p53-dependent pathways,

as well as its namesake, neuroblastoma-derived myelocytomatosis, and probably many other factors, at the transcriptional and selleck chemicals llc translational levels, and through mRNA stability. We survey the data for clues to theNDRG1 gene’s mechanism and for indications that the NDRG1 gene may be an efficient diagnostic tool and therapy in many types of cancers.”
“We present a method to monitor a patient and the equipment in a radiotherapy

treatment room, by exploiting the information in the treatment plan, enriched with other elements such as visual, geometric, and “semantic” information. Using all these information items, and a generic model, a virtual environment of the scene is created, with maximum precision. The images resulting from video sequences with several cameras are also used to confront the filmed information on the scene LY2606368 molecular weight and its numerical representation. The method is based on the features of the scene elements, and on a fuzzy formalism. The feasibility of the method is being quantitatively evaluated in the absence of treatment, to be further exploited in a module for external control by video in real conditions.”
“BACKGROUND: The significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood and of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) in patients with early stage breast cancer is unclear. In this study, the authors investigated

the occurrence of CTCs and DTCs in women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated the correlation of their presence with other prognostic markers. METHODS: Blood and BM aspirations were collected at the time of primary breast surgery. CTCs were detected by using the Cell Search assay, and DTCs were detected by immunostaining BM aspirates for pancytokeratin. The presence of CTCs and DTCs was correlated with tumor classification (T1 vs T2), tumor histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and lymph node (LN) status. RESULTS: Of 92 patients who were included in the study, 49 had T1 tumors, and 43 had T2 tumors. CTCs were detected in 31% of patients, and DTCs were detected in 27% of patients.

These studies uncovered the role of aibp, abca1, abcg1, mtp, apoB

These studies uncovered the role of aibp, abca1, abcg1, mtp, apoB, and apoC2 in regulation of angiogenesis in zebrafish and paved the way for future studies in mammals, which may suggest new therapeutic approaches to modulation of excessive or diminished angiogenesis contributing to the pathogenesis of human disease.”
“Colorectal carcinogenesis represents EPZ5676 in vivo a sequential progression of normal colonic mucosa from adenoma to

carcinoma. It has become apparent that miRNA deregulation contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). These oncogenic or tumor-suppressive miRNAs interact with intracellular signaling networks and lead to alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and even response to chemotherapeutic treatments.

This article aims to review the cutting edge progress in the discovery of the find more role of novel mechanisms for miRNAs in the development of CRC. We will also discuss the potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis of CRC. Furthermore, with advancements in RNA delivery technology, it is anticipated that manipulation of miRNAs may offer an alternative therapy for CRC treatment.”
“A large series of substituted coumarins linked through an appropriate spacer to 3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethylanilino or 3-hydroxy-N, N,N-trialkylbenzaminium moieties were synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The highest AChE inhibitory potency in the 3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethylanilino series was observed with a 6,7-dimethoxy-3-substituted coumarin derivative, which, along with an outstanding affinity (IC(50) = 0.236 nm) exhibits excellent AChE/BChE selectivity (SI > 300 000). Most of the synthesized 3-hydroxy-N, N, Semaxanib N-trialkylbenzaminium

salts display an AChE affinity in the sub-nanomolar to picomolar range along with excellent AChE/BChE selectivities (SI values up to 138 333). The combined use of docking and molecular dynamics simulations permitted us to shed light on the observed structure-affinity and structure-selectivity relationships, to detect two possible alternative binding modes, and to assess the critical role of pi-pi stacking interactions in the AChE peripheral binding site.”
“Dendritic cell precursors, from human peripheral blood, express epitopes reactive with monoclonal antibodies specific for the empty conformation of HLA-DR1. Expression is substantially up-regulated during GMCSF-induced differentiation to immature dendritic cells, but is strongly down-regulated by IL-4. In the conventional protocol for in vitro generation of human dendritic cells from monocyte precursors, both GMCSF and IL-4 are used together, with IL-4 thought to have an effect on preventing macrophage outgrowth but not substantially altering the dendritic cell maturation pathway, whereas conventional protocols for generation of murine dendritic cells use GMCSF alone.

“Total oil content and concentrations of the major fatty a

“Total oil content and concentrations of the major fatty acids and of the tocopherol homologues were determined in the kernel oil of 44 local almond cultivars originated in the different Spanish growing regions. The ranges of variability for the different parameters was similar to those already reported for almond, such as 50.58-64.95% of dry matter (DM) for oil content, 64.97-79.59% of oleic acid in the total oil, and 313.0-616.1 mg/kg oil for alpha-tocopherol. Despite these ranges of variability, extremely high values were obtained in some genotypes, such as very high content

of oleic acid in ‘Muel’ and PRIMA-1MET chemical structure of a-tocopherol in ‘Araguayo-2′. These ranges of variability indicate that this collection reflects a high level of diversity and the importance of maintaining and characterising such a diverse germplasm collection. The knowledge of this diversity may be extremely useful in identifying interesting parents to be included in a breeding programme as a response to new selection objectives, such as the improvement of the chemical quality of the almond kernel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation status is critical to predicting responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase learn more inhibitor (TKI) therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, a vast majority of the patients

experience recurrence of the cancers by a secondary mutation of EGFR (T790M). Earlier studies suggested evidence that subclones bearing EGFR T790M mutation pre-exist in NSCLCs even prior to the therapies. However,

to date, the status of T790M mutation in primary NSCLC is largely known. In this study, we developed an assay using BI 2536 supplier peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-clamping PCR for detection of low-level EGFR T790M mutation. We found that the assay showed the highest sensitivity (0.01% mutation detection) in the clamping condition. We analyzed 147 NSCLC tissues [70 adenocarcinomas (AD), 62 squamous cell carcinomas (SQ), 12 large cell carcinomas (LC), and three adenosquamous carcinomas] that had not been exposed to the TKI therapies, and found 12 (8.2%; 12/147) EGFR T790M mutation in eight AD (11.4%), three SQ (4.8%), and one LC (8.3%) by the PNA-clamping PCR. However, this mutation was not detected by conventional DNA sequencing. Our data indicate that EGFR T790M exists in pretreatment NSCLC at low levels irrespective of histologic types. This study provides a basis for developing an applicable protocol for detecting low-level EGFR T790M mutation in primary NSCLC, which might contribute to predicting recurrence of the tumor in response to the TKI therapies.”
“Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans form of histiocytosis characterized by xanthomatous tissue infiltration with foamy histiocytes.

3 rad/ s) 1 MeV gamma-rays We characterized the radiation- induc

3 rad/ s) 1 MeV gamma-rays. We characterized the radiation- induced attenuation (RIA) and radiation-induced emission (RIE) phenomena in the spectral range 200-1100 nm. These commercial fibers, optimized for the transport of high power of ultraviolet (UV) light, present good radiation tolerance to transient

and steady state environments compared to other classes of multimode optical fibers with pure or doped cores (Ge, P, F). The different tested SR fibers present similar behaviors for both gamma-rays and X-rays. These fibers present low transient and FK866 inhibitor permanent RIA levels for wavelengths greater than 300 nm. Our results showed that RIE can become an important factor of the fiber degradation, especially for high dose-rate irradiation. The induced

losses in these fibers can be explained by the generation of Si-related defects like the SiE’, Si-NBOHCs or STHs and also to chlorine-related centers like Cl degrees.”
“Background: Several studies have evaluated the association between forest fire smoke and acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases, but few have examined effects on pharmaceutical dispensations. We examine the associations between daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and pharmaceutical dispensations for salbutamol in forest fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations in British Columbia (BC), Canada.\n\nMethods: We estimated PM2.5 exposure for populations in administrative selleckchem health areas using measurements from central monitors. Ispinesib order Remote sensing data on fires were used to classify the populations as fire-affected or

non-fire-affected, and to identify extreme fire days. Daily counts of salbutamol dispensations between 2003 and 2010 were extracted from the BC PharmaNet database. We estimated rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each population during all fire seasons and on extreme fire days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, and temporal trends. Overall effects for fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations were estimated via meta-regression.\n\nResults: Fire season PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in all fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.07) for a 10 ug/m(3) increase. Fire season PM2.5 was not significantly associated with salbutamol dispensations in non-fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR of 1.00 (0.98-1.01). On extreme fire days PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in both population types, with a global meta-regression RR of 1.07 (1.04-1.09).\n\nConclusions: Salbutamol dispensations were clearly associated with fire-related PM2.5. Significant associations were observed in smaller populations (range: 8,000 to 170,000 persons, median: 26,000) than those reported previously, suggesting that salbutamol dispensations may be a valuable outcome for public health surveillance during fire events.

In this study, we tested whether functional differences between c

In this study, we tested whether functional differences between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-COPD fibroblasts could be reduced utilizing this approach. Primary fibroblasts from non-COPD and COPD patients were reprogrammed to iPSCs. Reprogrammed iPSCs were positive for oct3/4, nanog, and sox2, formed embryoid bodies in vitro, and induced teratomas in nonobese

diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Reprogrammed iPSCs were then differentiated into fibroblasts (non-COPD-i and COPD-i) and were assessed either functionally by chemotaxis and gel contraction or for gene expression by microarrays and compared with their corresponding primary fibroblasts. Primary COPD fibroblasts contracted three-dimensional collagen gels and migrated toward fibronectin less robustly than non-COPD fibroblasts. In contrast, redifferentiated buy CP-456773 fibroblasts from iPSCs derived from the non-COPD and COPD fibroblasts were similar in response in both functional assays. Microarray analysis identified 1,881 genes that were

differentially expressed between primary COPD and non-COPD fibroblasts, with 605 genes differing by more than twofold. After redifferentiation, 112 genes were differentially expressed between COPD-i and non-COPD-i with only three genes by more than twofold. Similar findings were observed with microRNA (miRNA) expression: 56 miRNAs were differentially expressed between non-COPD and COPD primary cells; after redifferentiation, only 3 miRNAs were differentially expressed between non-COPD-i and COPD-i fibroblasts. Interestingly, of the 605 genes that were differentially expressed between COPD and non-COPD LOXO-101 fibroblasts, 293 genes were changed toward control after redifferentiation. In conclusion, functional and epigenetic alterations of COPD fibroblasts can be reprogrammed through formation of iPSCs.”
“Ischemia selleck inhibitor Reperfusion injury is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to the tissue

after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen. In this study, the effect of pentoxyfylline on BCL-2 gene expression changes and cell injury in kidney of rat following Ischemia Reperfusion were evaluated. In this experimental study, 20 male wistar rats with average weight of 250-300 g were selected and then were accidently divided them on two tenth group of control and treatment groups. In the control group, celiotomy was performed by ventral midline incision. The left kidney was isolated, and then both the renal artery and vein were obstructed. After 60 minutes of warm ischemia, vessel obstruction resolved and the right kidney was removed. 72 hours after reperfusion, tissue samples were taken from left kidney for Tunel assay. We used quantitative real time PCR for detection of BCL-2 gene expression in treated groups and then compared them to control samples. In the treatment group, the cell death changes, showed lower level than the control group.

These results suggest that larvae of T absoluta, falling from le

These results suggest that larvae of T. absoluta, falling from leaves following insecticide application, could be suitable hosts for nematodes, thereby increasing their concentration and persistence in the soil.”

deep foundation fit was reinforced by soil nailing, shot concrete and steel bar mesh. According to the engineering characteristic, the safety grade is valued two, based on this, the reinforcement pressure of unit area of soil nailing which is about 115.92kN is calculated, and it is larger than the largest lateral earth pressure which is about 71.43kN, from which we can know that the, foundation fit is stable. The 3D-s finite element program was used to simulate axial force of soil this website nailing, lateral displacement of foundation fit and surface displacement, and the simulation results were all small from which it can be known that the foundation fit is stable. The calculation results accord with the theory calculations. The study results also

show that relative displacement of foundation fit fringe decreases with the excavated depth increasing, and surface settlement decreases quickly with the distance between BI 6727 purchase surface and foundation fit fringe increasing.”
“Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial regulator of energy metabolic homeostasis and thus a major survival factor in a variety of metabolic stresses and also in the aging process. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a low-grade, chronic inflammation, primarily in adipose tissue. A low-level of inflammation is also present in the aging process. There are emerging results indicating that AMPK signaling can inhibit the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) system. The NF-kappa B subunits are not direct phosphorylation targets of AMPK, but the inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling is mediated by several downstream targets of AMPK, e.g., SIRT1, PGC-1 alpha, p53, and Forkhead box O (FoxO) factors. AMPK signaling seems to enhance energy metabolism while it can repress inflammatory

responses linked to chronic stress, e.g., in nutritional overload and during the aging process. AMPK can inhibit endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stresses which are involved in metabolic disorders and the aging process. Interestingly, many target proteins of AMPK are so-called longevity factors, e. AG-881 g., SIRT1, p53, and FoxOs, which not only can increase the stress resistance and extend the lifespan of many organisms but also inhibit the inflammatory responses. The activation capacity of AMPK declines in metabolic stress and with aging which could augment the metabolic diseases and accelerate the aging process. We will review the AMPK pathways involved in the inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling and suppression of inflammation. We also emphasize that the capacity of AMPK to repress inflammatory responses can have a significant impact on both healthspan and lifespan.

Likewise, posterior IC administration of the 5-HT3 receptor agoni

Likewise, posterior IC administration of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG) enhanced the establishment of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping and produced conditioned gaping on its own (which was prevented by intracranially administered OND), with

no effect on CTA. On the other hand, anterior IC administration Entinostat of OND partially reduced the establishment of LiCl-induced CTA, and mCPBG produced a weak CTA, both without effect on gaping. These results suggest that activation of 5-HT3 receptors in the posterior IC is important for the production of nausea-induced conditioned disgust reactions, while activation of 5-HT3 receptors in the anterior IC are involved in the production of CTA.”
“Backgound:\n\nOral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa which the World Health Organisation (WHO) considers a premalignant condition. One step in malignant development is so called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics. EMT occurs during embryogenesis and wound healing but also in some human diseases such as cancer and fibrosis. A factor known to induce EMT is transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which uses the Smad proteins as mediators for its signalling. TGF-beta is also often buy TPCA-1 over-expressed in squamous

cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).\n\nMethods:\n\nIn the present study we mapped expression of Smad proteins in OLP lesions by immunohistochemistry, and compared to expression in normal and sensitive oral mucosa. The latter group of patients had developed SCCHN after shorter or longer periods of diffuse oral symptoms. The aim was to see if there were any signs of EMT related changes in the OLP lesions, as judged by changes in the TGF-beta pathway.\n\nConclusion:\n\nChanges in the TGF-beta pathway related to EMT are seen in the very earliest stages of oral malignancy and become more severe as lesions progress.”
“The influence of lactate/phosphate enhancement on meat color and lipid oxidation stability, tenderness, protein degradation,

and protein aggregation of early postmortem beef muscles packaged in a high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx-MAP; 80% O(2), 20% CO(2)) were studied. At 24 hr postmortem, three bovine muscles (longissimus, semimembranosus, and adductor; n = 10, respectively) were enhanced (10% injection rate) with either lactate (2.5%)/phosphate (0.3%) solution or water, packaged in HiOx-MAP, stored 9 days at 1 degrees C. and then displayed for 7 days at 1 degrees C. The lactate/phosphate injection significantly improved color stability (higher a* values) of all three bovine muscles throughout display period. Accumulation of lipid oxidation determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values was also decreased (P<0.