For example, the six facets they identified for agreeableness were trust, straightforwardness, compliance, altruism, modesty, and tender-mindedness. The universality of the FFM domains is not terribly surprising when one considers their content. The first two domains that appear in every language have consistentlybeen
extraversion and agreeableness.27 The aspect of personality functioning considered to be most important to persons Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical across all cultures and languages when describing themselves and other persons is how people relate to one another. Many theorists have similarly placed special emphasis on interpersonal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical relatedness as providing the core of personality disorder.28 The third domain extracted from every language is conscientiousness (or constraint).
This domain concerns the control and regulation of behavior, contrasting being disciplined, compulsive, dutiful, conscientious, deliberate, workaholic, and achievement-oriented, with being carefree, irresponsible, lax, impulsive, spontaneous, disinhibited, negligent, and hedonistic. It is again self-evident that all cultures would consider it to be important to describe the likelihood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a person will be responsible, conscientious, competent, and diligent as a mate, parent, friend, employee, or colleague (versus being negligent, lax, disinhibited, or impulsive). The fourth domain, emotional instability, is of considerable Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical importance in mental and also medical health,29 saturating most measures of personality disorder.30 It is again not terribly surprising that people in most, and perhaps Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical all, cultures consider the emotional stability (in terms of anxiousness, depressiveness, irritability, volatility, anger, and vulnerability) of their partners, children, friends,
workers, laborers, and employees to be of considerable importance. The fifth domain, openness, intellect, or unconventionality, reflects a culture or society’s interest in Selleckchem DMXAA creativity, intellect, and imagination, however contrasting being open-minded, unusual, odd, weird, creative, peculiar, and unconventional with being closedminded, practical, conventional, and rigid. The FFM has amassed a considerable body of empirical support, including multivariate behavior genetics with respect to its structure31 (and even some molecular genetic support for neuroticism30), neurobiological correlates,32 childhood antecedents,33 temporal stability across the life span,34 and cross-cultural validity, both through the emic studies considering the structures indigenous to different languages24 and etic studies translating the FFM across the major regions of the world.