76 The BNST is considered to be part of the extended amygdala 77<

76 The BNST is considered to be part of the extended amygdala.77

It appears to be a center for the integration of information originating from the amygdala and the hippocampus (Figure 1), and is clearly involved in the modulation of the neuroendocrine stress response.78,79 Activation of the BNST, notably by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), may be more specific for anxiety than fear. Studies in rats with the startle reflex suggest that explicit cues such as light, tone, or touch activate the amygdala, which then activates hypothalamic and brainstem target areas involved in the expression of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical fear, whereas less specific (or more complex) stimuli of longer duration, such as exposure to a threatening environment or intraventricular administration of CRF, may preferentially involve the BNST.73 The PFC and the control of emotional responses The primary roles of the PFC appear to be the analysis of complex stimuli or situations and the control of emotional responses. In a revised version of his Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical original BIS model, Gray postulated that the PFC may modulate septohippocampal activity, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that lesions to this area would impair the processing of vital information for the subicular comparator, and subsequently

affect behavioral inhibition and anticipatory anxiety.51 He also suggested that the role Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of cortical structures in anxiety was probably more prominent in primates, based on the increased anatomical relationship between the septohippocampal system and the prefrontal and cingulate cortices observed in monkeys. Recent studies in humans and primates have largely confirmed Gray’s hypothesis, and it is now clear that the various Palbociclib supplier subdivisions of the human PFC

(dorsolateral, ventromedial, and orbital sectors) have specific roles in representing affect in the absence of immediate rewards or punishments and in controlling emotional responses.80,81 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical There appear to be important functional differences between the left and right sides within each of these sectors. Earlier studies on patients with unilateral brain lesions have Dipeptidyl peptidase already emphasized the role of cerebral lateralization in emotional information processing.82 More recently, brain electrical activity measures and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have indicated that negative affect and anxiety are associated with increased activation of the right PFC; moreover, individual differences in baseline levels of asymmetric activation in the PFC may be associated with individual differences in affective styles and vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders.81 There is also increasing evidence that the PFC plays an important role in controlling anxiety and the associated stress response in rats, and that cerebral laterality is an important feature of the PFC system.

First-generation national vaccine antigen standards and NTAb stan

First-generation national vaccine antigen inhibitors standards and NTAb standards were approved by the Expert Committee of China for Standards (2010 No. 0023; 0024). These standards were applied to EV71 vaccine development in China, including their use as parts of the QC process for vaccine manufacturing, packaging of semi-finished and finished products,

and determination of dosage. These also included standards for the evaluation of immunogenicity for preclinical studies and provided a platform for standardization of analysis of clinical vaccine samples in the near future. The current study was sponsored by the National Science Project (No. 2008BAI69B01) and the National 11th Five Major Special Projects Funding Program (No. 2009ZX10004-804). The authors would thank the find more following investigators for

their participation in various portions of the collaborative studies described in this report: Dong Chenghong, Xie Zhongping, Long Runxiang (Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences), Hao Chunsheng, Chen Lei, Wang Yu TGF-beta inhibitor (National Vaccine & Serum Institute), Li Yajing, Zhang Lizhi, Cai Fang (Sinovac Biotech Co., Ltd., Beijing), Guo Zengbing, Zhang Xia, (Hualan Biological Engineering Inc), Li Yimin (Beijing WanTai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd.), and Kong Jian (Beijing Luzhu Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd.). Contributors: All authors have contributed tuclazepam significantly to the study and the manuscript. Conflict of interest statement: None declared. “
“Although the hepatitis A vaccine is effective, safe and available since the 1990s, routine childhood immunization against hepatitis A still is an underused policy. In high endemic areas, hepatitis A occurs early in childhood and most infections are asymptomatic. Improvement of the sanitary conditions leads to a shift of the age groups affected by hepatitis A, with increasing incidence in older age groups and higher frequency of icteric and serious disease, enhancing the importance of hepatitis A as a public health problem. Higher

risk of outbreaks with common source also occurs in areas in transition from high to intermediate/low endemicity [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends universal vaccination against hepatitis A in countries with intermediate endemicity [1]. Israel, USA and Argentina have implemented universal childhood vaccination programs against hepatitis A with great impact on the disease epidemiology [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Brazil is undergoing epidemiological transition, presenting two distinct epidemiological patterns: the North, Northeast and Midwest regions with intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A, and the South and Southeast regions with low endemicity [7], [8] and [9].

Overall, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the s

Overall, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the safety and tolerability of neuroprotective agents from the studies conducted so far especially in chronic applications as required in glaucoma management. We are of the opinion that click here clinical viability of neuroprotective agents in glaucoma will require drug delivery systems that can achieve intraocular bioavailability

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical while maintaining therapeutic drug levels at minimal dosing times. 2.2. Overview of Implantable Delivery Systems for Antiglaucoma Therapeutics Ideal qualities for glaucoma drug delivery systems include the following: sustained delivery of drug (therapeutics) to the desired segment of the eye, ability to tailor drug delivery to the natural progression of the disease, achieve high ocular drug bioavailability, improve local drug activity while allaying concerns of systemic side effects or complications at the site of administration, drug Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical administration should be noninvasive or minimally invasive without interfering with vision, drug delivery platforms should be safe and nontoxic while ensuring patient acceptance. Implantable delivery systems can potentially surmount the challenge of patient nonadherence to therapy while offering localized controlled drug delivery. There are a

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical diverse range of biocompatible implantable devices which include nondegradable and biodegradable drug pellets, bioerodible scleral plugs, films and discs, and polymeric matrices in different shapes and sizes that aid delivery of drugs to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical posterior eye segment [28, 29]. These are considered as alternatives to repeated intravitreal injections with the ability to modulate

drug release and extend intraocular half-life of therapeutics [30, 31]. Examples of sustained release implants in some preclinical glaucoma models are summarized in Table 1. Although there are a number of implantable delivery systems that are being studied in glaucoma management, none of the implants/formulations is currently FDA approved or marketed for treatment of this disease. Majority of the research work in this area Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have only been done in preclinical Histone demethylase models. Examples of sustained release drug delivery systems specifically designed for glaucoma that are undergoing clinical development are listed in Table 2. Perhaps it would take several years before a viable sustained release delivery system (implantable device) will become commercially available with acceptable safety risk profiles. Table 1 Examples of sustained release delivery systems studied in glaucoma-induced preclinical models. Table 2 Examples of sustained release delivery systems for glaucoma that are under clinical development. 2.2.1. Biodegradable Ocular Implants The key feature of implantable delivery systems that are fabricated from biodegradable polymers is that they do not require postapplication removal of implants after successfully delivering the loaded drugs/therapeutic agents.

2011) After severing all sensory and motor nerves

of th

2011). After severing all sensory and motor nerves

of the thoracic ganglia, we elicited fictive singing by pharmacological stimulation of the command neurons in the brain (Fig. 1A; cf. Wenzel and Hedwig 1999). The singing motor pattern was recorded from the left mesothoracic nerve T2-N3A, which contains several axons of wing-opener and wing-signaling pathway closer motoneurons. Thus, the pulse pattern, which constitutes the chirps, is reflected by rhythmically alternating opener- and closer-motoneuron spike bursts in the nerve recordings (Fig. 1B; cf. Poulet and Hedwig 2002). In order to distinguish between the acoustic pulse and the underlying biphasic opener–closer motorcycle, we will refer to the latter Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as “syllable” as these encompass a silent and sonorous section. To compare the fictive motor pattern with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the

temporal characteristics of the natural calling song, we quantitatively analyzed the wing-nerve recordings of five males that produced sustained singing episodes with 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable chirps. In the majority of animals, singing activity started within 20 min after eserine injection and then lasted up to 3 h in some specimen. For episodes of fictive singing with either 3-, 4-, or 5-syllable chirps, the chirp rate decreased significantly with 2.9 ± 0.2, 2.6 ± 0.2, and 2.3 ± 0.3 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Hz, respectively (mean ± SD; N = 5, n = 50; t-tests: P < 0.001 for each combination; Fig. 1C). This was due to an increase

in the chirp duration with each additional syllable generated (108 ± 7, 148 ± 10, and 192 ± 12 msec for 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable chirps, respectively; N = 5, n = 50; t-tests: P < 0.001 for each combination). In contrast, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical regardless of the chirp duration, the chirp intervals ranged between 210 and 256 msec (IQR; median = 233 msec; N = 5, n = 150). When pooled over the five animals, the mean syllable rate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was 23.8 ± 2.2 Hz (mean ± SD; N = 5, n = 450). From the beginning to the end of a chirp, however, consecutive syllables became longer, resulting in a gradual decrease in the instantaneous syllable rate (Fig. 1D). For 5-syllable chirps, the consecutive syllable repetition rates were 25.5 ± 2.3, 24.3 ± 1.6, 23.3 ± 1.6, and 21.8 ± 1.7 Hz; for 4-syllable chirps 25.3 ± 2.2, 24.3 ± 2.1, and 22.6 ± 2.0 Hz; and for 3-syllable chirps 24.3 ± 1.8 and 22.6 ± 1.8 Hz (mean ± SD; second N = 5, n = 50). The mean syllable rate of chirps was very consistent for each individual animal regardless of the syllable number, but between males it varied significantly in the range of 21–26 Hz (t-test: P < 0.0001 for seven of the 10 possible combinations between five animals; n = 90 each). During fictive singing, an opener-to-closer interval of 21.5 ± 2.1 msec (N = 5, n = 600) and subsequent closer-to-opener interval of 21.0 ± 3.2 msec (N = 5, n = 450) were generated (lower trace in Fig. 1B).

Since then the criteria have been extended to include additional

Since then the criteria have been extended to include additional patients where the surgery could prove to be technically challenging. The American hepato-pancreatico-biliary (AHPBA) association consensus conference on pancreatic cancer (2009) expanded the venous involvement criteria to allow tumor abutment

of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SMV/PV with or without MK0683 clinical trial impingment and narrowing of the lumen (in addition to venous encasement or short segment occlusion). NCCN has adopted some of these AHPBA guidelines in its most recent version (2.2011) and allows SMV/portal vein abutment with impingment and narrowing of the lumen (13)-(16). The criteria for arterial involvement (SMA and hepatic artery) are clear and similar across the board. The above definitions describe the anatomic subset of borderline resectability

that deal only with tumor-vessel orientation (referred to as type Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A). Katz and colleagues have described two additional subsets, types B and C, which attempt to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical define additional criteria for borderline resectability beyond the imaging based principles (17). Most physicians encounter patients with operable pancreatic cancer who are not quite ready for immediate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical surgery and require extra time off to sort out host or tumor related concerns. Some of these patients have subtle indeterminate subcentimeter liver lesions or peritoneal / omental nodules that are suspicious for metastatic disease they are too small to proceed with a diagnostic FNA- biopsy or additional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical imaging tests (PET-CT or MRI). These patients fit the MDACC type B definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Type B patients

may have had a technically resectable or a borderline resectable primary tumor as defined on CT images. found Another subset of patients is those who have associated medical comorbidities that need time to evaluate or a reversible borderline performance status (typically ECOG 3). Good examples of these presentation is a patient who has a small asymptomatic pulmonary embolism on routine imaging or a patient with a low prealbumin and decline in nutrition and performance status in the presence of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis though progress is noted after biliary decompression and a close eye on nutritional supplementation. This subset constitutes Type C category (and patients in this category may also have had a radiographic potentially resectable or a borderline resectable primary tumor).

Regardless, there is clearly a need for targeted therapies for Ge

Regardless, there is clearly a need for targeted therapies for GemA that can delay or prevent progression www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html to GBM. However, until now there has been no useful animal model of GemA available to test adjuvant therapy after surgical debulking as humans are treated. Furthermore, the murine models of glioma have not been predictive of toxicity or

efficacy in humans, and this has undoubtedly contributed to the painstakingly slow progress in therapeutic development. Similarly to humans, dogs develop spontaneous brain tumors that often carry a dismal prognosis. Based on an incidence of primary brain tumors in dogs of 20 per 100,000/year, it has been estimated that 12,000 dogs could be eligible for recruitment into clinical studies in the United States annually [5]. We and others have found many similarities between human and canine glioma such as: overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor, mutation of the Tp53 tumor suppressor gene [6], extensive invasion into normal brain, peritumoral edema and necrosis [7] and [8], hemorrhage, compression, herniation, and obstructive hydrocephalus BIBF1120 [9], [10] and [11]. Similar to humans, the prognosis for dogs with brain tumors is poor regardless of therapeutic intervention. However, much less is known about treatment outcomes

because of a historical lack of treatment options in dogs and because only a small number of studies, each of which includes few dogs, have been reported. The median survival time for dogs with glioma (any grade) that do not receive any type of treatment ranges between 6 and 13 days [9] and [10]. In dogs receiving only palliative

therapy the range is 60–80 days [12] and [13]. Radiation therapy may have resulted in an increased survival time in one dog with glioma (176 days) as Adenylyl cyclase compared to corticosteroid therapy in three dogs with glioma (18, 40 and 64 days) [12]. The median survival for 9 dogs putatively diagnosed with glioma at our institution based on imaging characteristics of an intra-axial mass was 29 days (range 1–128 days). These dogs did not receive any therapy other than corticosteroids and anticonvulsants. The clinical similarities between dogs and humans suggest that dogs may represent an outstanding model for testing targeted therapies; both dogs and humans might benefit from these studies. We previously developed a dendritic cell culture-free vaccine consisting of glioma cell lysate and CpG ODN, “CpG/Lysate”, that significantly inhibitors extended survival of glioma-bearing mice [14]. CpG ODN is a potent vaccine adjuvant that signals through toll like receptor nine (TLR9) in dendritic cells and B cells to induce adaptive anti-tumor immune response in murine models and select cancer patients (reviewed in [15]).

Continuation treatment consisted of combined NT and IPT, using th

Continuation treatment consisted of combined NT and IPT, using the same dose of NT (an average of 85 mg/day, but with a range of 20 to 200 mg/day) as during acute therapy, but reducing the frequency of IPT to twice monthly. Patients with stable remission and recovery entered the Alisertib experimental maintenance phase of the study, via double-blind random assignment to one of four longterm treatment conditions:

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (i) medication clinic with NT; (ii) medication clinic with placebo; (iii) monthly maintenance IPT with NT; and (iv) monthly maintenance IPT with placebo. Patients remained in maintenance therapy for 3 years, or until recurrence of major depression, whichever occurred first. Survival analysis tested differences in rates of recurrence and time to recurrence. Outcomes of therapy at each phase of treatment: acute, continuation, and maintenance Acute

treatment Of 187 patients who signed informed consent to participate, 5 showed spontaneous remission and 2 declined to begin treatment. Thus, 180 patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical actually began acute treatment with NT and IPT, and of these 159 completed acute-phase treatment (140 remitters and 19 nonresponders). Twenty-one patients dropped out of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acute-phase treatment, 8 refusing further treatment, 6 developing medical conditions contraindicating NT, 2 being noncompliant, and 1 each dying or becoming delusional or manic. The median time to remission Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in this sample was 12 weeks,16 and the earliest point of statistically reliable discrimination of recovering and nonrecovering patients was 4 weeks.17 Almost one third (30.5%) showed rapid sustained response to combined treatment with NT and IPT, ie, they were well by 4 weeks. Other patients remitted more slowly, by 8 to 10 weeks (22.1%), while the remaining patients showed partial or mixed response. Slower and more variable treatment response was associated with higher pretreatmcnt levels of anxiety, lower levels of social support, greater current age at study entry, and higher percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep before the initiation of treatment.15 Subjects with earlier-onset depressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical illness (ic, first episode prior to age 60) took on

average 5 to 6 weeks longer to achieve remission, possibly a reflection of the greater number of prior lifetime episodes Rebamipide (chronicity).18 Because early-onset subjects also had a higher rate of past suicide attempts, we concluded that they need especially careful surveillance during acute treatment, since they are likely to take longer to respond. Continuation treatment Of the 140 remitters who entered continuation treatment, 124 met study criteria for recovery at the end of 16 weeks of continuation treatment. Nine patients relapsed and could not be restabilized. Seven subjects dropped out of treatment, either noncompliant or refusing further treatment altogether. TTms, 124 patients were randomly assigned to a long-term maintenance therapy condition.

The ATA consensus emphasises the importance of comprehensive and

The ATA consensus emphasises the importance of comprehensive and reliable clinical pathways with clear communication. New technologies can potentially reduce the occurrence of complications and improve detection of impending life threatening postoperative emergencies, for example recurrent laryngeal nerve injury by endotracheal nerve monitoring and pre-empting of significant postoperative hypocalcaemia S3I-201 datasheet from parathyroid hormone measurement.

Postoperative haemorrhage is the critical factor determining risk acceptability for day case thyroid surgery. Whilst it is unrealistic to expect to be able to eliminate the occurrence of bleeding from the day case pathway the reduction of a significant adverse consequence may be possible with the appropriate set-up. Postoperative haemorrhage occurs between 0.9%–1.25% [3], [10], [13] and [25] and 2.1% Paclitaxel research buy [11] of all thyroidectomies. The frequency of life threatening airway obstruction (due to local compression and laryngeal oedema) however is much less clear. The incidence of patients requiring tracheostomy may be a surrogate marker. Of 10, 201 thyroidectomies performed over a 40-year period at the Royal North Shore hospital 124 (1.2%) required re-operation for haemorrhage

with 31 (0.3%) requiring a tracheostomy [26]. This is comparable to Burkey’s data with a quarter requiring bedside decompression [25]. In Promberger’s series of over 30,000 thyroidectomies [24], there were 3 fatal outcomes (1 per 10,000 surgeries) and 9 of 591 (1.5%) bleeds requiring tracheostomy. Thirty-day mortality following thyroid surgery in the UK is 1 in 500 [10] and at least some of these deaths will be secondary to a postoperative haemorrhage. Incidence of fatal haematoma has not been reported in the large US studies. A postoperative thyroid bleed needs urgent assessment and at least a quarter require immediate perhaps even bedside intervention [3], [25] and [26]. Intuitively, a post-thyroidectomy haemorrhage occurring

at home would increase the mortality Phosphoprotein phosphatase risk but there is no data to prove this. In Promberger’s series, patients requiring tracheostomy had a three-fold longer interval between skin closure and recognition of symptoms/re-operation indicating that delay in diagnosis leads to laryngeal/supraglottic Modulators oedema and increased morbidity [24]. This infers that a patient bleeding at home would fare worse due to inevitable delays in intervention, but this may not necessarily be so if such bleeds were not life threatening. To assure against an increased risk from the day case setting, a reliable form of risk stratification to identify patients with a minimal bleed risk is required. Unfortunately, even with experienced clinical judgement, there is no reliable and reproducible patient and disease specific criteria to risk stratify patients for postoperative haemorrhage. A large retrospective review of 7921 thyroidectomies and 5896 parathyroidectomies over 25 years compared 21 (0.26%) and 21 (0.

Apart from a structured monthly phone call, there was physician-l

Apart from a structured monthly phone call, there was physician-led medical support available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Intervention

was provided based on set standards on an ongoing basis. A total of 710 patients were randomized to the monitoring system and usual care. Compliance in the intervention arm was high — 81% Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had at least 70% of daily data transmission. Follow-up at 26 months (on average) showed no difference in overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or hospitalizations. In addition to weight, the TEN-HMS study also monitored blood pressure, heart rate, and rhythm (with a single-lead electrocardiogram) twice daily and transmitted into a hub connected to a conventional telephone line, which then transmitted information through a central web server to each investigator site. The study was halted early due to a significantly higher mortality in the usual care group (reflecting a high-risk population) when compared to either nurse telephone support Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or the above-described telemonitoring system. There was

no significant difference in outcomes between the latter two groups. The patient contact time was significantly lower in the usual-care arm, and evidence-based medications were more frequently used in both the nurse-based support and telemonitoring arms. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Though telemonitoring increased hospitalization for HF, it decreased length of stay, probably due to a higher comfort level of healthcare providers being able to monitor patients at home. Finally, the Specialized Primary and Networked Care in Heart Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Failure-II (SPAN CHF-II) trial evaluated the impact of automated home monitoring added to a disease management program and found no added benefit for providing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical daily medication prompts, recordings of weight, vital signs, and symptoms.12 Though the published meta-analyses show a positive outcome for telemonitoring, they do not include the recent experience from the above-mentioned Tele-HF, TIM-HF,

and SPAN-CHF II trials. At this time, the strength of evidence in favor of these interventions is unclear. Moreover, it is difficult to interpret the meta-analyses of studies that had varied interventions clubbed under telemonitoring. Monitoring With Specially Designed Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II Wearable and Implantable Technology The focus of telemonitoring has centered on predicting acute decompensation episodes that are typically associated with fluid PD98059 congestion and require optimization of diuretic therapy. The sine quo non for this process is to identify the parameter that best predicts fluid congestion. As mentioned previously, the sensitivity and specificity of weight as a reflection of total body water is not accurate.

36 Although mutation is responsible for creating SNPs, their main

36 Although mutation is responsible for creating SNPs, their maintenance probably depends on natural selection on coding sequences, which in turn is regulated by its precise functional role as well as meiotic recombination. This marked variability of variability in candidate genes is also illustrated by the fact that extremely invariable gene regions can also occur, with no structural mutations at all, singletons, or complete absence of any variant in coding or regulatory regions, even when genes

were systematically resequenced in substantial numbers up to about 200 individuals.62,78,79 In particular, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical an extensive survey by Halushka et al36 showed that about, 17% of all genes were invariable at the protein level, which is in agreement with our extrapolations of a fraction of about 20% of invariable genes (Hoehe M et al, unpublished results). This may be related to certain aspects of yet, unknown or particularly high functional significance among the total gene pool,

and is one of the important questions to be addressed in the future. Taken together, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical there is no a priori way to predict the actual natural variability of a gene; it must be Bcl-2 inhibitor empirically assessed in appropriately Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chosen samples in each case. An example of the variability of variability in candidate genes, which may exist even within members of the same gene family (such as G protein-coupled receptor genes) or even within members of the same group of receptor subtypes or genes encoding endogenous receptor ligands, is given in Figure 3 80 These genes may represent prototype examples of drug targets and their potential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical variability, particularly with respect, to the fact that more than 50% of the total of 417 receptor targets of pharmaceutical relevance encode G protein-coupled receptors.4 Figure 3 Polymorphic spectra of candidate genes.80 The genomic reference sequences are presented as baseline, exonic sequences

as gray or white (untranslated regions [UTRs]) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bars; sequences were drawn to scale, which is indicated. All gene variants are specified … For instance, in the human µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) (Figure 3a), a target for morphine, the classical pain killer in contemporary medicine and substance of abuse, a total of 43 variants have been identified within 6.7 kb in 250 European- and African-Americans.29 Clearly, the 5′ regulatory and 5′UTR regions these (one SNP every 99 bp and 73 bp, respectively) and the critical regions in intron 2 (one SNP every 110 bp) were much more variable than the coding exon (one SNP every 267 bp) and other intronic regions. Five of the six SNPs in the coding region clearly affected the encoded protein; two of those (which were relatively frequent) were located in the N-terminal, one in the third transmembrane domain, and two in the third cytoplasmic loop; all were shown to induce functional alterations.