However, nitrous oxide emissions were deduced from the electron b

However, nitrous oxide emissions were deduced from the electron balance, cathode

coulumbic efficiency and Tafel plots. Bioelectrochemical evolution of the biocathode was related to the denitrification nature (sequential reaction steps from NO3- to N-2, through NO2- and N2O as stable intermediates) and was supported by the Tafel plots.

CONCLUSIONThe bioremediation of nitrate-polluted groundwater with a MFC biocathode is feasible. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective-To assess the diagnostic utility of transurethral cystoscopic biopsy in dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and urethra.

Design-Retrospective case series.

Animals-92 dogs

with histologically confirmed TCC.

Procedures-Information on sex, breed, neuter status, buy 3-MA body weight, tumor location, biopsy method, number of biopsy procedures, experience level of clinician performing biopsy, and quality of biopsy sample was obtained from medical records. The association of variables with likelihood of achieving a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample was evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results-If used as the initial biopsy method, cystoscopic biopsy samples were of diagnostic quality in 65% of male dogs and 96% of female dogs with histologically confirmed TCC. Cystoscopic biopsy samples were significantly more likely to be of diagnostic quality in female dogs than in male dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Cystoscopic biopsy Temsirolimus molecular weight is an effective method

to obtain biopsy samples in dogs with TCC of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is more find more likely to produce a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample in female dogs with TCC than in male dogs with TCC. Cystoscopy should be considered as a primary means of biopsy in male and female dogs with masses of the urinary bladder or urethra. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:350-356)”
“Interlayer exchange couplings were examined for Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 (CFAS)/Cr/CFAS trilayered films grown on MgO (001) single crystal and thermally oxidized Si substrates. The films were (001) epitaxial on MgO and (110) textured polycrystalline on SiO2.Strong exchange couplings were observed for the films with the 1.5 nm thick Cr spacer layer. A 90 degrees coupling is dominant in the (001) epitaxial film. In contrast, an antiparallel coupling exists in the polycrystalline one. The relationship of interlayer couplings with the structure is discussed. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3072018]“
“BACKGROUNDIn this work, photochemical treatment (UV/H2O2) of a municipal secondary effluent was studied to assess its suitability for preparing water for reuse. Ten water reuse criteria obtained from the legislation of eight countries were used as indicators of water quality.

We have calculated local moments using the locally self-consisten

We have calculated local moments using the locally self-consistent multiple scattering (LSMS) method for a supercell containing a screw-dislocation quadrupole. Finite size effects are found to be significant indicating that dislocation cores affect the electronic structure

and magnetic moments of neighboring dislocations. The influence of neighboring dislocations points to a need to study individual dislocations from first principles just as they appear amid surrounding atoms in large-scale classical force field simulations. An approach for the use of the LSMS to calculate local moments in subvolumes of large atomic configurations generated in the course of classical molecular selleck chemical dynamics simulation of dislocation dynamics is discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562217]“
“Background: Phrenic stimulation (PS) may cause intolerable symptoms and prevent CRT delivery in 2-5% of patients. We sought to ensure effective cardiac resynchronization therapy Autophagy inhibitor (CRT) delivery by management of PS at the left ventricular (LV) target site.

Methods and Results: Two hundred and eleven consecutive patients received a CRT device despite PS occurrence at the LV target site at implantation,

when a PS-LV difference >2V was achieved by LV stimulation programming (cathode, pacing vector). PS management strategy both at implantation and at follow-up (FU) aimed to keep the target LV implantation site. LV reverse remodeling was assessed by echocardiography NU7441 in vivo before implantation and at follow-up. LV lead placement was lateral/posterolateral in all the 211 patients; 51 of 211 had detectable PS at FU, 26 of 211 (12.3%) were symptomatic. Symptoms occurred more frequently when PS-LV difference was <3V (16/16 vs 10/35, P < 0.001). Cathode and pacing vector reprogramming improved the PS-LV difference and symptoms in 14 of 23 patients. LV output as threshold

+0.5V was helpful to manage PS symptoms in patients with a PS-LV <= 2V at FU. Median FU was 34.9 (16-50) months: 12 patients had tolerable PS symptoms, 76% (39/51) were objective responders at echocardiography compared to 74% (119/160) in patients without PS (P = NS).

Conclusions: CRT delivery at long term is feasible despite PS at the target LV site. PS management is mandatory in about 12.3% of patients at FU, with 6.6% remaining symptomatic. Symptoms improve at FU when a PS-LV >3V is achieved. Further improvement in lead manufacturing and pacing electronics are awaited to meet this clinical need. (PACE 2011; 34:1201-1208)”
“Helicobacter pylori colonizes a large proportion of the world’s population, with infection invariably leading to chronic, lifelong gastritis.

Except for 1 mild sequela in both treatment groups, all patients

Except for 1 mild sequela in both treatment groups, all patients recovered entirely.


Most cases of childhood AHOM can be treated for 20 days, including a short period intravenously, PLX3397 with large doses of a well-absorbed antimicrobial such as clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, provided the clinical response is good and C-reactive protein normalizes within 7 to 10 days. Extensive surgery is rarely needed.”
“Objectives: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the efficacy of single-dose fosfomycin prophylaxis as an alternative to fluoroquinolone-based prophylaxis in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP). Methods: We evaluated the records of 620 patients who had undergone TRUSBP from January 2010 to July 2011. Patients received a single dose of 3 g oral fosfomycin or a single dose of 500 mg oral levofloxacin or 500 mg oral ciprofloxacin twice daily administered for 5 days starting 1 day before the prophylaxis procedure. We reviewed all febrile and afebrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) within 1 month after TRUSBP. Results: Of the 620

patients, 19 (3.0%) developed febrile UTI and 51 (8.2%) developed afebrile UTI after biopsy. Of the 19 patients with febrile UTI, find more 1/19 (5.2%) received fosfomycin, 4/19 (21%) received levofloxacin and 14/19 (73.6%) received ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis. Of the 51 patients with afebrile UTI, 4/51 (7.8%) received fosfomycin, 8/51 (15.6%) received levofloxacin and 39/51 (76.4%) received ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis. There were a total of 10 fluoroquinolone-resistant CX-6258 manufacturer infections, and all of them occurred after

the ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin prophylaxis and none after fosfomycin prophylaxis. Conclusions: The ease of use of fosfomycin, reducing the rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant infections and hospitalizations shows that it would be an alternative and effective drug for antimicrobial prophylaxis in TRUSBP. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“We report strain-induced coercive field changes in patterned 300 x 100 x 35 nm(3) Ni nanostructures deposited on Si/SiO(2) substrate using the magnetoelastic effect. The coercive field values change as a function of the applied anisotropy strain (similar to 1000 ppm) between 390 and 500 Oe, demonstrating that it is possible to gradually change the coercive field elastically. While the measured changes in coercive field cannot be accurately predicted with simple analytical predictions, fairly good agreement is obtained by using a micromagnetic simulation taking into account the influence of nonuniform strain distribution in the Ni nanostructures. The micromagnetic simulation includes a position dependant strain-induced magnetic anisotropy term that is computed from a finite element mechanical analysis.

“Purpose: To assess cardiac morphologic and functional ada

“Purpose: To assess cardiac morphologic and functional adaptations in elite triathletes with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to compare findings to those in recreationally selleck compound active control subjects.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Twenty-six male triathletes (mean age +/- standard deviation, 27.9 years +/- 3.5; age range, 18-35 years) and 27 nonathletic male control subjects

(mean age, 27.3 years +/- 3.7; age range, 20-34 years) underwent cardiac MR imaging. Electrocardiographically gated steady-state free-precession cine MR imaging was used to measure indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, ejection fraction (EF), and cardiac index at rest. The ventricular remodeling index, which is indicative of the pattern of cardiac hypertrophy, was calculated. The maximum left atrial (LA) volume was calculated according to the biplane area-length method. Differences between means of athletes and control subjects were assessed by using the Student t test for independent samples.


The atrial and ventricular volume and mass indexes in triathletes were significantly greater than those in control subjects (P<.001). In 25 of the 26 athletes, the LV Akt inhibitor and RV end-diastolic volumes were greater than the normal ranges reported in the literature for healthy, male, nonathletic control subjects (47-92 mL/m(2) and 55-105 mL/m(2), respectively). There was a strong positive correlation between end-diastolic volume and myocardial mass (P<.01). The mean LV and

RV remodeling indexes of the athletes (0.73 g/mL +/- 0.1 and 0.22 g/mL +/- 0.01, respectively) were similar to those of the control subjects (0.71 g/mL +/- 0.1 [P=.290] and 0.22 g/mL +/- 0.01 [P=.614], respectively). There was a negative correlation between LA end-systolic volume and heart rate (P<.01).

Conclusion: GW3965 chemical structure Changes in cardiac morphologic characteristics and function in elite triathletes, as measured with cardiac MR imaging, reflect a combination of eccentric and concentric remodeling with regulative enlargement of atrial and ventricular chambers. These findings are different from what has been observed in previous studies in other types of elite athletes. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“The relationships between the Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE) and genotype and motor and respiratory outcomes were examined in patients with spinal muscular atrophy types II and III (n = 70). The correlation between the HFMSE and Gross Motor Function Measure was r = 0.98. Correlations between HFMSE and forced vital capacity (percentage of predicted normal) (n = 56) and a functional rating (n = 57) were r = 0.87 and r = 0.92, respectively. Correlations with strength were as follows: knee extension, r = 0.

PK assessments indicated a linear response in MN-221 plasma conce

PK assessments indicated a linear response in MN-221 plasma concentrations for the doses evaluated. Dose escalation results showed that mean changes in FEV1 from pre-infusion were significantly greater than placebo and an overall dose response was statistically significant (p < .0001). Post-infusion

FEV1 improvements appeared to plateau at the 30 mu g/min dose level despite a higher peak plasma concentration at 60 mu g/min. Dose-rate escalation results demonstrated greater mean increases in change in FEV1 compared to the placebo group with the largest increase associated with the higher MN-221 dose rate and peak plasma concentration. Conclusions. TH-302 The safety profile of MN-221 and evidence of dose- and plasma-concentration-related bronchodilation supports further clinical development and suggests

the potential for clinical benefit without increased clinical risk, particularly for patients where inhaled or nebulized therapy is not adequate or possible.”
“Background: Stem Cell Compound Library chemical structure The etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is common in CFS patients. Recently, small heart with low cardiac output has been postulated to be related to the genesis of both CFS and OI.

Hypothesis: Small heart is associated with OI in patients with CFS. Methods: Study CFS patients were divided into groups of 26 (57%) CFSOI(+) and 20 (43%) CFSOI(-) according to the presence or absence of OI. In addition, 11 OI patients and 27 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function were determined echocardiographically.


The mean values of cardiothoracic ratio, systemic systolic and diastolic pressures, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV end- systolic dimension, stroke volume index, cardiac index, and LV mass index were all significantly smaller in CFSOI(+) patients than in CFSOI(-) patients and healthy controls, and also in OI patients than in controls. A smaller LV end- diastolic dimension (< 40 mm) was significantly (P< 0.05) more prevalently noted in CFSOI(+) (54%) and OI (45%) than in CFSOI(-) (5%) and controls (4%). A lower cardiac index (< 2 L/min/mm(2)) was more prevalent in CFSOI(+) (65%) than in CFSOI(-) (5%, P< 0.01), OI (27%), and controls (11%, Selleckchem GW4869 P< 0.01).

Conclusions: A small size of LV with low cardiac output was noted in OI, and its degree was more pronounced in CFSOI(+). A small heart appears to be related to the genesis of OI and CFS via both cerebral and systemic hypoperfusion. CFSOI(+) seems to constitute a well- defined and predominant subgroup of CFS.”
“We present a case report of a foetus with Prune-Belly syndrome (PBS) which was diagnosed sonographically during the 13th week of gestation and review of the literature. Sonographic diagnosis was based on abnormally distended urinary bladder and abdomen and absence of ‘keyhole sign’.

Average PA measured by accelerometer correlated with carotid beta

Average PA measured by accelerometer correlated with carotid beta-stiffness index (inversely) and with longitudinal systolic myocardial velocity (directly), independently of age, anthropometric, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters.

Subjects with periods of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA lasting at least 10 min (n = 28) had higher left ventricular (LV) mass index and lower plasma adiponectin, leptin, and hsCRP (P < 0.05 for all) compared with those who spent the monitoring time only in sedentary and light-intensity PA (n = 17). Minutes per day spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA correlated with LV mass index (directly) and with plasma adiponectin (inversely). Plasma adiponectin was an independent determinant of LV mass, together with body surface area, stroke volume, and systolic blood pressure (cumulative r (2) = 0.80). We conclude that in healthy Compound C subjects, average daily PA is independently related to longitudinal systolic myocardial function and to local carotid stiffness. Bouts of moderate-to-vigorous PA seem to induce LV mass increase, which may be partially related to a decrease in plasma adiponectin level.”
“Serum supplementation has shown to have beneficial effects on in vitro bovine embryo development. However, it is often assumed that serum supplementation may produce mitochondrial damage and this damage would generate lipid accumulation,

a major obstacle for cryopreservation. The aim of the present PCI-32765 ic50 study is to investigate the previous GDC 0032 inhibitor assumptions in early embryonic stages.

We considered in vitro produced bovine embryos from day 1 to 4 of development, which were grown in presence of serum from days 1, 2 or 3 or in absence of it. Electron transmission micrographs allowed us to quantify the area occupied by lipid droplets and by the different mitochondrial types to evaluate serum effect. Using confocal microscopy we analyzed

mitochondrial activity and location.

We found no evidence of lipid droplets accumulation or mitochondrial degeneration or reduction of mitochondrial area in serum supplemented media. Further, our results suggest that events of mitochondrial proliferation are taking place even in serum supplemented media.

Serum does not produce lipid accumulation or mitochondrial damage in bovine embryos from 2 to 16 cells. When serum was added to embryo culture medium on day 3 of development, there were ultrastructural signs of a beneficial effect for embryo development. The lack of serum until day 3 may also avoid the unnecessary exposure to potentially inhibitory factors present on it.”
“Modic changes are of increasing interest, however their age and gender prevalence are not well described. To date, the associations between Modic changes and other common vertebral pathologies have only been described in small samples (n < 100).

Because of the strong interfacial interaction between PVA and GE,

Because of the strong interfacial interaction between PVA and GE, which mainly Smoothened Agonist resulted from the hydrogen-bond interaction, together with the improvement in the PVA crystallinity, the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the nanocomposites were obviously improved. The tensile strength was increased from 23 MPa for PVA to 49.5 MPa for the nanocomposite with a 3.25 wt % GE loading.

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 275-279, 2010″
“Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is side-polished to enable interaction with sensitive materials around FBG fiber core. Using TbFeCo magneto-optic thin film deposited onto FBG fiber core as transducer, a FBG refractive index senor for magnetic field/current characterization is first proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Magnetic field sensing experiments show 19 pm of wavelength shift at a magnetic field intensity of 50 mT, the average linearity of magnetic field response is 0.9877. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3466981]“
“Background: No studies have examined dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in a large cohort of African American women.

Objective: We investigated the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the Black Women’s Health Study.

Design: This is LB-100 a prospective cohort study of 50,778 participants followed biennially from 1995 through

2007. During 443,742 person-years of follow-up, 1094 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Factor analysis was used to derive food patterns based on 69 food variables. We used Cox regression models to obtain incident rate ratios (IRRs) for breast cancer in relation to quintiles of each of the 2 dietary patterns, with adjustment for other breast cancer risk factors.

Results: Through factor analysis, we identified 2 dietary patterns: Western (refined grains, processed meat, and

sweets) and prudent (whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and fish). The prudent diet was HDAC inhibitor review weakly associated with lower breast cancer risk overall; P for trend = 0.06. In analyses stratified by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the prudent dietary pattern was associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer in women with a BMI <25 (IRR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). The prudent dietary pattern was also associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (IRR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01), and we found a significant inverse association for the prudent dietary pattern and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (IRR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.94; P for trend <0.01).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the prudent dietary pattern may protect against breast cancer in some black women. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:621-8.

SSI is a major problem after lower limb vascular surgery Most SS

SSI is a major problem after lower limb vascular surgery. Most SSIs in vascular surgery are caused by Staphylococcal

species that are part of normal skin flora. A prospective observational investigator blind study to examine quantitative and qualitative analysis of surgical wound bacterial colonization and the correlation with the development of SSI has been conducted.

Methods: The study cohort comprised 94 consecutive patients with 100 surgical procedures. Swabs for microbiological analyses Were taken from surgical wounds at four different time intervals: before surgery, just before the surgical selleck area had been scrubbed, at the end of surgery, and on the first and second postoperative days. Postoperative complications were recorded.

Results: Three hundred and eighty-seven skin bacterial samples from 100 surgical wounds were analyzed. The most common bacteria isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci (80%), Corynebacterium species (25%), and Propionibacterium species (15%). In click here 13 (62%) cases, the same bacterial isolates were found in the perioperative study samples as in the infected wounds. The incidence of SSI was 21%. Multivariate analysis revealed that high bacterial load on the second postoperative day and diabetes independently increased the risk of SSI. Elective redo surgery was protective

against the development of SSI.

Conclusions: A high bacterial load in the postoperative surgical wound independently increases the risk of the development of SSI after lower limb vascular surgery. (C) 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: In order to rationalize the optimization of biofilm reactor design and operation in waste gas treatment, it is essential to understand the mass transfer properties in biofilms. In this study, oxygen transport this website within the biofilms of a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was characterized at different liquid flow velocities. Further, oxygen concentration distributions along the depth of the biofilms were investigated under different operating conditions (different oxygen supply modes, and various toluene loading rates)

by using oxygen microelectrodes. RESULTS: Oxygen fluxes into the biofilm ranged between 0.15 and 0.4 g m(b)(-2) h-1 at different liquid velocities of 0 to 0.06 m s-1 operated at a toluene loading rate of 0.08 g m(m)(-2) h-1 and a gas residence time of 24 s. In addition, toluene elimination capacities (ECs) obtained in this research ranged from 75 to 550 g m(gv)(-3) h(-1) (0.15 to 1.1 g m(m)(-2) h(-1)) at loading rates (LRs) of 87.5 to 625 g m(gv)(-3) h(-1) (0.17 to 1.25 g m(m)(-2) h(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: Microelectrode measurements reveal that the liquid flow influences the oxygen transport (reduction of the concentration boundary layer thickness) into the biofilm and plays a major role in controlling the flux of oxygen across the biofilm-water interface, thus increasing the potential for aerobic biodegradation.

05] and small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses (aOR 5 20), while

05] and small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses (aOR 5.20), while the risk factors for PA during the antenatal period were identified to be SGA fetuses (aOR 5.39), preterm uterine contractions (aOR 5.96) and preeclampsia (aOR 3.37). The risk factor associated with clinically small PA was the presence of anemia before 20 weeks (aOR 6.41).

Conclusions: It was likely

that the etiologies differ between cases of PA that occur during the antenatal period and cases that occur after the onset of labor.”
“BACKGROUND There are no previously published reports focusing exclusively on the use RSL3 research buy of 1,000-centistoke purified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-1000) for cosmetic soft-tissue augmentation.

OBJECTIVE To provide clinical experience with its cosmetic use, solely and in conjunction with other nonpermanent fillers, in

a private practice setting.

METHODS AND MATERIALS A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients treated by the author Selleck ABT 737 over 6 years, beginning in 2003. Treatments were tabulated according to facial region and arbitrarily designated as rhytides, acne scars, lips, infraorbital, nasolabial, and general contour. Therefore, up to six treatments were possible with any visit. Concomitant treatment with nonpermanent fillers, as well as any significant adverse events, was noted as well.

RESULTS Nine hundred sixteen patients were treated (816 (89%) female,

100 (11%) male). There were 5,246 treatments over 3,307 visits, with an average of 3.5 visits per patient and 1.6 treatments per visit. Adverse events were limited to overcorrection in 11 patients (1%). Of the 916 patients, 257 (28%) were also treated with other (nonpermanent) fillers without incident.

CONCLUSION Over the 6-year period, PDMS-1000 was found to be effective and safe in the cosmetic practice setting. Other (nonpermanent) Anlotinib fillers were also used without incident.”
“Rationale: Pattern sensitivity can be diagnosed by presenting a series of visual patterns to the subject in the electroencephalography (EEG) laboratory; however, testing for pattern sensitivity is not routinely done during EEG recording. This work aimed to highlight the incidence of pattern sensitivity among patients referred for routine EEG recording during a 1-year period, identifying the cause of referral, diagnosis, and the characteristics of pattern-sensitive patients.

Methods: All patients aged 4 years and older who were referred for routine EEG during a 12-month period and had no motor or visual impairment were enrolled in the study. Intermittent photic stimulation and pattern sensitivity were tested for each case. Pattern sensitivity was tested by scanning three different rhythmically moving patterns at reading distance with the patient seated in an illuminated room.

When gross total resection is impossible, rapamycin and everolimu

When gross total resection is impossible, rapamycin and everolimus should be considered, but may not offer a durable response.”
“The absence of a terminal flower in inflorescences (‘open inflorescences’) is currently explained C59 Wnt mouse by the maintenance of putative stem-cells in the central zone (CZ) of the inflorescence meristem (IM) governed by the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL regulatory loop. Disruption of this regulatory

pathway, as in Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER LOCUS 1 mutants, leads to terminal flower production. However, recent studies in other taxa reveal novel mechanisms of inflorescence termination; for example, the SEPALLATA-like MADS-box floral identity gene GERBERA REGULATOR OF CAPITULUM DEVELOPMENT 2 in Gerbera excludes the retention of a CZ as an ontogenetic cause for the openness of these inflorescences. Moreover, comparative histological studies show that the retention of a CZ in the IM, mostly a feature of the ‘typical open families’, is absent in open inflorescences of other families. Concerning these groups, new evidence

suggests that spatial constraints at the IM could play a role at the time when terminal flower production (or not) is determined. This indicates that the multiple loss and re-gain of the terminal flower in angiosperms is necessarily based on more than one ontogenetic pathway.”
“Computer simulation for the nonisothermal crystallization of short fiber reinforced composites is presented. The pixel coloring technique is implemented to the study of crystal morphology evolution as well as

the crystallization kinetics. A parametric study is used to explore LY2603618 supplier the influences of thermal conditions and fibers on the crystallization in the reinforced system. We particularly focus on the roles of cooling rate, initial temperature, nucleation density on fibers, fiber content, fiber length, and fiber diameter. The results indicate that cooling rate is a significant factor to the crystallization kinetics as well as the morphology. The initial temperature only affects the crystallization kinetics and has minor impact on the morphology. The additional fibers have a dual effect on the crystallization. They depress the crystallization rate by hindering the spherulitic growth and accelerate the crystallization rate by providing nucleation sites. The constraining effect is mainly dependent on fiber content, whereas the enhancing effect is mainly determined by fiber surface and fiber nucleation density as well as surface nucleation mode. Present results are hoping to give more insight about the crystallization in short fiber reinforced composites and be more helpful to the industrial application. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1584-1596, 2012″
“High-grade gliomas (HGGs) should be treated with maximal, safe surgical resection followed by 57-60 Gy of partial-field external beam or intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a 2 cm margin surrounding the resection cavity.