, 2012). Differentiation at the local scale is therefore only expected to occur if selective forces are strong over small distances (Eriksson et al., 2007). Thus, in the presence of moderate ecological gradients, the adaptive genetic differentiation within a species is anticipated
to be manifested at a regional rather than a local level unless in the presence of strong barriers against GSK 3 inhibitor gene flow at a local level (cf. e.g., Graudal et al., 1997). The empirical evidence for the presence of adaption is substantial in tree species. Provenance and common garden tests over the last century have provided ample evidence of adaptation on a regional scale and clinal patterns in species with continuous distribution across ecological gradients, even in the presence of substantial gene flow (Alberto et al., 2013). Most published studies are from temperate and boreal forests, but several studies in tropical tree species have identified similar levels of adaptation (Finkeldey and Hattemer, 2007 and Ræbild et al., 2011). The genecological concept therefore builds on an expectation that genetic differentiation in adaptive traits will reflect the variation in ecological conditions at a regional
level – at least as long as the species in question has a fairly continuous distribution containing viable populations. The genecological zonation approach thus provides Venetoclax a framework for predicting patterns of genetic variation in traits of adaptive significance between populations sampled range-wide. As the approach is based on the expectation that genetic patterns are generated from the balance between gene flow and selection, it will be less relevant for species that occur predominantly in small isolated populations where drift and inbreeding may have played many a prominent role in developing genetic patterns. This limitation can include species with recent rapid geographic expansion or species subject to a recent hybridisation with native or introduced species. Factors such as selection, migration and habitat range may affect species diversity and genetic diversity in the same direction (Vellend and Geber, 2006).
However, the links between genetic diversity, species diversity, composition of communities and distribution are far from straightforward (e.g., Alonso et al., 2006). For example, restricted habitat and distribution often lead to low species diversity in communities (islands for example), but responses in terms of genetic diversity can vary widely. For instance, the California endemic Pinus torreyana ( Ledig and Conkle, 1983) is genetically narrow (“depauperate”), but Cedrus brevifolia ( Eliades et al., 2011), which has a distribution limited to a small area of Cyprus, is one of the most diverse conifers. Conversely, widely distributed species such as the Mediterranean Pinus pinea ( Vendramin et al., 2008) and the North American Pinus resinosa ( Echt et al.