However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gol

However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gold standard’ is available to measure how close the reconstructed

network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability SBI-0206965 due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation) procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM) network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package

nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying VX-770 purchase modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes,

from 2 to 10 modules), and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC) and False Discovery Rate (FDR) Citarinostat strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects), and we validate the analysis on a second dataset (166 subjects) with good reproducibility.”
“The pro-apoptotic effects of hydrogen peroxide and the purported anti-apoptotic effects of Vitamin C on chicken embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. Hydrogen peroxide induced morphological changes in a dose dependent manner, and a myriad of autophagosomes were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Doxorubicin elicited alterations were not inhibited by co-incubation with Vitamin C except that mitochondrial structure was slightly improved. TUNEL assay, cytotoxicity analysis and flow cytometry revealed that the cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic rates were dose dependent upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Calcium homeostasis was disrupted in a dose dependent manner, and cell cycle was blocked at G(2)/M checkpoint at low concentration and S/G(2) checkpoint at high concentration respectively upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

1%) with pWMSI values of 1 0, 123 patients (PCI, 13 5%; CABG, 7 3

1%) with pWMSI values of 1.0, 123 patients (PCI, 13.5%; CABG, 7.3%) with pWMSI values of 1.1 to 1.7, and 102 patients (PCI, 12.7%; CABG, 9.6%) with pWMSI values > 1.7. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified pWMSI as a predictor of coronary angiography Proteases inhibitor (relative risk, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.5), revascularization (relative risk, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.17), and cardiac events (relative risk, 2.45; 95% confidence

interval, 2.09-2.88) (all P values < .0001). Patients with markedly abnormal stress echocardiographic results (pWMSI > 1.7) had a significantly higher cardiac event rate in those who did not undergo coronary revascularization (9.6% per year vs 2.9% per year, P < .05).\n\nConclusions: Stress echocardiography is an effective gatekeeper for coronary angiography and revascularization. Stress echocardiographic results influence clinical decision making in higher risk patients with significantly increased referral to coronary angiography and revascularization. Patients with markedly abnormal stress echocardiographic results (pWMSI > 1.7) were most likely to benefit from coronary revascularization. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010; 23: 832-9.)”
“Digital Gene Expression was performed to investigate the midgut transcriptome profile of 4008 silkworm strain orally infected with BmCPV. A total of 4,498,263 and 4,258,240 clean tags were obtained from the

control and BmCPV-infected larvae. A total of 752 differentially expressed genes were detected, of which 649 were upregulated and 103 were downregulated. Analysis results of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of PCI-34051 Genes and Genomes pathway showed that 334 genes were involved in the ribosome and RNA transport pathways. Moreover, 408 of the 752 differentially expressed genes have a GO category and can be categorized into 41 functional groups according to molecular function, cellular component and biological process. Differentially expressed genes involved in signaling, gene expression, metabolic process, cell death, binding, and catalytic activity changes were detected in the expression profiles. Quantitative real-time PCR was

performed to verify the expression of these genes. The upregulated Ferroptosis inhibitor drugs expression levels of Calreticulin, FK506-binding protein, and protein kinase c inhibitor gene probably led to a calcium-dependent apoptosis in the BmCPV-infected cells. The results of this study may serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion but also on the anti-BmCPV mechanism of silkworm. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Stable carbon (and when present, nitrogen) isotope ratios of fluid inclusions in quartz from selected gold deposits in Ghana and Zimbabwe have been analyzed using a crushing device interfaced to an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) in order to constrain possible sources of the auriferous fluids.

Specifically, in DPPC membranes, TTPs altered the structural orde

Specifically, in DPPC membranes, TTPs altered the structural order of the L beta, phase without destabilizing the lipid bilayer. The existence of a nonbilayer isotropic phase in coexistence with the liquid crystalline L alpha phase, as observed in DPPC:URL samples, indicated the presence of lipid structures with high curvature (probably inverted micelles). In DPPC:Cho membranes, TTPs affected the membrane phase properties increasing the Laurdan

GP values above 40 degrees C. MSL and URL induced segregation of Cho within the bilayer, HM781-36B chemical structure in contrast to OLA, that reduced the structural organization of the membrane. These results strengthen the relevance of TTP interactions with cell membranes as a molecular mechanism underlying their broad spectrum of biological effects. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The ferric uptake regulator (Fur)

is a predominant bacterial regulator controlling the iron assimilation functions in response to iron availability. Our previous microarray analysis on Yersinia pestis defined the iron-Fur modulon. In the present work, we reannotated the iron assimilation genes in Y. pestis, and the resulting genes in complementation with those disclosed by microarray constituted a total of 34 genome loci (putative operons) that represent the potential iron-responsive targets of Fur. The subsequent real-time reverse transcription-PCR learn more (RT-PCR) in conjunction with the primer extension analysis showed that 32 of them were regulated by Fur in response to iron starvation. A previously predicted Fur box sequence was then used to search against the promoter regions of the 34 operons; the homologue of the above box could be predicted in each promoter tested. The subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that a purified His(6) tag-fused Fur protein was able to bind in vitro to each of these promoter regions. Therefore, Fur is a global regulator,

both an activator and a repressor, and directly controls not only almost all of the iron assimilation functions but also a variety of genes involved in various non-iron Screening Library clinical trial functions for governing a complex regulatory cascade in Y. pestis. In addition, real-time RT-PCR, primer extension, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assay were used to elucidate the Fur regulation of the ybt locus encoding a virulence-required iron uptake system. By combining the published data on the YbtA regulation of ybt, we constructed a concise Fur/YbtA regulatory network with a map of the Fur-promoter DNA interactions within the ybt locus. The data presented here give us an overview of the iron-responsive Fur regulon in Y. pestis.”
“Ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS belongs to intraductal proliferative lesions, which are a group of cytologically and architecturally diverse ductal proliferations, typically originating from the terminal duct-lobular units.

This study shows the dearth of physician blood donors and a stron

This study shows the dearth of physician blood donors and a strong cohort of institution-affiliated repeat donors. Physicians represent a potential, stable, and sustainable donor pool; further studies are needed to establish physician recruitment programs.”
“Background: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is a chronic disease affecting about 400 000 people in the US characterized by Etomoxir price increasing

patient disability and burden on society. While there is no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), pharmaceutical treatments exist that can limit the number of relapses a patient experiences, and slow disease progression. One such class of agents used to treat RRMS are the interferons: interferon-beta-1a (Rebif (R) and Avonex (R)) and interferon-beta-1b (Betaseron (R) and Extavia (R)). Patients must take these injectable medications regularly

to achieve the optimal outcomes. However, patient issues and potential adverse effects of the medication may prevent the patient from taking the medication as directed and lower adherence. To date, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of patient adherence to interferon-beta therapies on clinical and economic outcomes.\n\nObjective: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of patient adherence to interferon-beta therapy on MS relapse rates and healthcare resource utilization.\n\nMethods: Using a non-experimental, selleck chemicals llc retrospective cohort design, a sample population (n=1606) was drawn from patients identified in a database that includes both pharmacy and medical claims data. The study population was separated into two groups based on a measure of medication possession ratio (MPR)-adherent and non-adherent patients, and adherence was defined as MPR >= 85% in a given year during the study period (2006-8). Key outcome variables included MS relapses and healthcare resource utilization. Data were analysed

using parametric and non-parametric statistics, and regression modeling.\n\nResults: During the study period, the average MPR for all patients on interferon-beta therapy varied from 72% to 76%. Only 27-41% of patients in each year were considered adherent (i.e. MPR >= 85%) and only 4% of patients had an MPR of >= 85% throughout the 3-year study Raf inhibitor drugs period (2006-8). Patients who were adherent tended to have a lower risk of relapses over 3 years than non-adherent patients. A significantly lower risk of relapses was found in 2006 (risk ratio [RR] 0.89; 95% CI 0.81, 0.97). Furthermore, an increasingly larger effect emerged between adherence and relapses when comparing adherent patients (MPR >= 85%) with subgroups of non-adherent patients (<80%, <75%, <70%, <65% and <60%). The impact of adherence on emergency room (ER) visits also tended to suggest a lower risk during 2006, 2007 and 2006-8. During 2008, the risk for an ER visit was significantly lower for patients adherent in 2007 (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.61, 0.99).

No foaming was observed over the duration of the study, indicatin

No foaming was observed over the duration of the study, indicating absence of a primary foaming cause even though the suspected contributors to AD foaming were present. Total solids and temperature profiles showed that reducing mixing frequency did not significantly Bcl-2 inhibitor impact digester performance or the homogeneity of the digester contents. The results showed that high organic loading rates, reduced mixing, and feed sludge storage by themselves do not cause foaming in most ADs when the primary foaming cause is absent.

Reduced mixing and surface sludge sprays are practical strategies to control AD foaming. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In order to gain insight into the ammonia-detoxification mechanisms in the brain and liver tissues, we have investigated the effects of hyperammonemia in rats, in vivo, on the activity levels of a number of ammonia-and glutamate-metabolizing enzymes in mitochondria and the cytosolic fractions of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and liver. In general, the ammonia metabolizing enzymes – glutaminase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, AMP deaminase, adenosine deaminase, as well as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase – are differentially

upregulated in various brain and liver regions of the hyperammonemic rats, indicating that divergent ammonia-detoxification selleck chemicals mechanisms are involved in the various brain regions and liver in acute hyperammonemia.”
“Using information from wild-type

and mutant Vibrio vulnificus nuclease (Vvn) and I-PpoI homing endonuclease co-crystallized with different oligodeoxynucleotides, we have built the complex of Vvn with a DNA octamer and carried out a series of simulations to dissect the catalytic mechanism of this metallonuclease in a stepwise fashion. The distinct roles played in the reaction by individual active site residues, the metal cation and water molecules have been clarified by using a combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanical calculations. Our results strongly support the most parsimonious catalytic mechanism, namely one in which a single water molecule from bulk solvent is used to cleave the phosphodiester bond and protonate the 3′-hydroxylate leaving group.”
“A nitrite reductase gene related to somatic embryogenesis was first cloned from Gossypium hirsutum. The cDNA sequence of the gene, named GhNIR, is 2,257 bp in length, with 254 bp of the 5′ untranslated region and 236 bp of the 3′ untranslated region. The open reading frame is 1,767 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 588 residues with a molecular weight of 65.722 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.07.

Fifty six patients who underwent conventional gastrectomy were us

Fifty six patients who underwent conventional gastrectomy were used for comparison. Results: Intra- and postoperative complications were found in 4 and 3 of 14 high risk patients, respectively. We found a significant correlation between E-PASS score and complications. E-PASS score in high risk group was significantly higher than the value in low risk group. The estimated in-hospital mortality rate was significantly different between

the two groups. When conventional gastrectomy group for high risk patients was compared, postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were similar in two surgical procedures; however E-PASS score and the estimated in-hospital mortality rate with conventional gastrectomy were significantly higher than LDN-193189 ic50 the value with laparoscopic gastrectomy. Conclusions: There were no fatal complications in high risk patients with laparoscopic gastrectomy and E-PASS score was within safety margin. Extension of laparoscopic surgery in high risk patients was feasible when careful procedure was performed by a surgical team.”
“This study explored SN-38 the somatotopy of the motor areas of the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere, in the human brain. In a sample of 16 healthy participants, we drew 9 regions of interest (ROI)

over the primary motor area (M1), each corresponding to a well-known somatic representation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the resting state functional connectivity between each selected ROI and the motor areas of the medial wall. The main finding was the identification of a rostrocaudal gradient of connectivity in which the more we move from cranial to caudal body representation areas in M1, the more the corresponding connected area in the medial wall is shifted rostrocaudally, CFTRinh-172 clinical trial confirming the somatotopic schema found in the SMA. We also reanalyzed data obtained in a previous experiment, we performed using hand and foot

motor tasks; the reanalysis consisted in traditional BOLD and functional connectivity analyses. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis of 28 studies of hand and foot motor tasks, mapping their cerebral representations using the tools provided by the Brainmap database. All data converge in confirming a somatotopic representation of the medial wall motor areas, with hand representation placed more rostrally and ventrally than that of the foot. Hum Brain Mapp 32: 1566-1579, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of referent pathologists (RPs) to the quality of diagnosis of trophoblastic diseases and to study the level of diagnostic agreement between the initial pathologists and the RPs.\n\nMETHODS: This observational retrospective study was carried between 1 November 1999 and 11 January 2011 using the database of the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Centre in Lyon.

Here, we present a 2 3A crystal structure of the N-terminal

Here, we present a 2.3A crystal structure of the N-terminal CH5424802 region of fission yeast Nbs1, revealing an unusual but conserved architecture in which the FHA- and BRCT-repeat domains structurally coalesce. We demonstrate that diphosphorylated pSer-Asp-pThr-Asp motifs, recently identified as multicopy docking sites within Mdc1, are evolutionarily conserved Nbs1 binding targets. Furthermore, we show that similar phosphomotifs within Ctp1, the fission yeast ortholog of human CtIP, promote interactions with the Nbs1 FHA domain that are necessary for Ctp1-dependent

resistance to DNA damage. Finally, we establish that human Nbs1 interactions with Mdc1 occur through both its FHA- and BRCT-repeat domains, suggesting how their structural and functional interdependence underpins Nbs1 adaptor functions in the DNA-damage response.”
“Resistance to bacterial speck disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is activated upon recognition by the host Pto kinase of either one of two sequence-unrelated effector proteins, AvrPto or AvrPtoB, from Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Pto induces Pst immunity by acting in concert with the Prf protein. The recently reported structure of the

AvrPto-Pto complex revealed that interaction of AvrPto with Pto appears to relieve an inhibitory effect of Pto, allowing Pto to activate Prf. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Pto binding domain of AvrPtoB (residues Selleckchem ACY-1215 Selleck 4EGI-1 121 to 205) at a resolution of 1.9 angstrom and of the AvrPtoB(121-205)-Pto complex at a resolution of 3.3 angstrom. AvrPtoB(121-205) exhibits a tertiary fold that is completely different from that of AvrPto, and its conformation remains largely unchanged upon binding to Pto. In common with AvrPto-Pto, the AvrPtoB-Pto complex relies on two interfaces. One of these interfaces is similar

in both complexes, although the primary amino acid sequences from the two effector proteins are very different. Amino acid substitutions in Pto at the other interface disrupt the interaction of AvrPtoB-Pto but not that of AvrPto-Pto. Interestingly, substitutions in Pto affecting this unique interface also cause Pto to induce Prf-dependent host cell death independently of either effector protein.”
“The cobalt-catalyzed formal Alder-ene reaction of functionalized alkenes and alkynes leads to bifunctionalized 1,4-dienes in high yields and excellent regio- and stereoselectivities. The silicon-functionalized building blocks are easily converted into iodo-functionalized derivatives and in combination with boron-functionalized building blocks polyenes can be generated utilizing a Suzuki cross-coupling. In addition, building blocks incorporating allylic silane functionalities can be used in Sakurai allylation or Prins-type cyclization reactions for the synthesis of heterocyclic products such as tetrahydrofuranes or tetrahydropyranes.”
“The dc B-H curve or hysteresis loop of a magnetic material is necessary even in dynamic field analysis.

Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor u

Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. selleck kinase inhibitor To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower-and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral,

and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 +/- 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 +/- 0.9 s; P smaller than 0.001) and control (1.1 +/- 1.0 s; P = 0.005) muscles. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 +/- 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 +/- 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 +/- 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold

unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor TH-302 units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing.”
“The fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes during lipid biosynthesis is larger in autotrophic than in heterotrophic microorganisms, possibly due to selective incorporation of hydrogen from water into NAD(P)H, resulting in D-depleted lipids. An analogous fractionation should occur during amino acid biosynthesis. Whereas these effects are traditionally measured using gas-phase isotope ratio on 1H-1H and 1H-2H, using an electrospray mass spectrometry-based technique on the original biomolecular structure

and fitting of isotopic patterns we measured the hydrogen isotope compositions of proteins from β-Nicotinamide an acidophilic microbial community with organism specificity and compared values with those for lipids. We showed that lipids were isotopically light by -260 parts per thousand relative to water in the growth solution; alternatively protein isotopic composition averaged -370 parts per thousand. This difference suggests that steps in addition to NAD(P)H formation contribute to D/H fractionation. Further, autotrophic bacteria sharing 94% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity displayed statistically significant differences in protein hydrogen isotope fractionation, suggesting different metabolic traits consistent with distinct ecological niches or incorrectly annotated gene function.

In good agreement with the localization of its target


In good agreement with the localization of its target

acetylation, H3K9ac-mintbody was enriched in euchromatin, and its kinetics measurably changed upon treatment with a histone GDC-0941 supplier deacetylase inhibitor. We also generated transgenic fruit fly and zebrafish stably expressing H3K9ac-mintbody for in vivo tracking. Dramatic changes in H3K9ac-mintbody localization during Drosophila embryogenesis could highlight enhanced acetylation at the start of zygotic transcription around mitotic cycle 7. Together, this work demonstrates the broad potential of mintbody and lays the foundation for epigenetic analysis in vivo.”
“The detrimental effects of structural defects, micro-twins (MTs) and threading dislocations (TDs), on electron mobility have been investigated learn more for InSb quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature (RT). The

constants that are necessary to calculate the electron-mobility limits of these defects were determined by a least-squares-based method that has an advantage of clear representation of the analytical results in a two-dimensional space. Based on a mathematical consideration, a general method of converting electron-mobility limits into percentage impacts upon the total electron mobility was developed. Percentage-mobility-impact analyses showed that, when InSb QWs grown on on-axis (001) GaAs substrates have a TD density of 8.7 x 10(8) – 3.2 x 10(9)/cm(2), 21-14 and 18-45% of electron-mobility degradation are attributed to MTs and TDs, respectively, at RT. The use of 2 degrees off-axis (001) GaAs substrates reduces MT densities in InSb QWs, resulting in a suppression of the MT mobility impact to 3-2% and a complementary slight increase of the TD mobility impact to 22-51% in the same TD density range. This considerable TD mobility limit indicates that it should be possible to improve RT electron mobility in InSb QWs grown on 2 degrees off-axis

(001) GaAs substrates, by means of reducing TD density further (< 8.7 x 10(8)/cm(2)). Although the mobility impacts due to phonons in InSb QW grown on-axis and 2 degrees off-axis selleck (001) GaAs substrates are 54-36 and 67-42%, respectively, phonon scattering is not a single dominant scattering factor: MTs and TDs have also substantial negative impacts upon RT electron mobilities in InSb QWs. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563587]“
“The corneo-scleral limbus contains several biological components, which are important constituents for understanding, diagnosing and managing several ocular pathologies, such as glaucoma and corneal abnormalities. An anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) system integrated with optical microangiography (OMAG) is used in this study to non-invasively visualize the three-dimensional microstructural and microvascular properties of the limbal region.

These data collectively detail the inhibition of de novo choleste

These data collectively detail the inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis, which is the likely cause of cytotoxicity and potentially a target pathway of the toxin. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“At the end of 2004, an outbreak of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) spread from the Nancy Teaching Hospital to more than 40 facilities in the Lorraine region. Because this outbreak

appeared to be uninhibited, a regional task force was set up to organize and co-ordinate the management of the outbreak, visiting the affected facilities to publicize Pevonedistat cost the existing recommendations and take stock of the problems encountered in the field. The task force then proposed control measures specific to the region. The proposed measures included promoting the use of alcohol-based hand-rub solutions, isolation measures, enhanced screening policies, cohorting GRE-colonized patients and contacts in special wards with dedicated staff where possible, or failing that, isolating them in single rooms with additional “contact” precautions, maintaining these precautions for GRE-colonized patients until a negative stool sample was obtained after antibiotic treatment (which is a more restrictive definition of “cleared” than usually employed), regional co-ordination of the follow-up of GRE-colonized patients with the weekly publication of a list of institutions that were or had been

affected to allow isolation measures GSK1210151A cost to be adopted as soon as known-GRE-colonized patient were readmitted. It was not possible to determine the efficacy of each individual measure on the course of the outbreak. Nevertheless, we observed that the number of new GRE-colonized patients started to decrease following their implementation. Ultimately, 1077 GRE colonizations were recorded in Lorraine, and the outbreak is now under control. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Polyethylenimine (PEI, especially with M(w) of 25 000) has been

known as an efficient gene carrier and a gold standard AZD8186 chemical structure of gene transfection due to its high transfection efficiency (TE). However, high concomitant cytotoxicity limited the application of PEI. In this report, several cationic polymers derived from low molecular weight (LMW) PEI (M(w) 600) linked with diglycidyl adipate (DA-PEI) or its analogs (diglycidyl succinate, DS-PEI and diglycidyl oxalate, DO-PEI; D-PEIs for all 3 polymers) were prepared and characterized. GPC gave M(w)s of DA-PEI, DS-PEI and DO-PEI as 6861, 16 015 and 35 281, respectively. Moreover, degradation of the ester-containing DS-PEI was also confirmed by GPC. In addition, hydroxyls in these polymers could improve their water solubility. These polymers exhibited good ability to condense plasmid DNA into nanoparticles with the size of 120-250 nm. zeta-potentials of the polyplexes were found to be around + 10-20 mV under weight ratios (polymer/DNA) from 0.5 to 32.