By employing the p(+) nc-Si:H as a window layer, complete p-i-n s

By employing the p(+) nc-Si:H as a window layer, complete p-i-n structures were fabricated and characterized. Low leakage current and enhanced sensitivity in the UV/blue range were achieved by incorporating an a-SiC:H buffer between the p- and i-layers. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Survey results show that in spring season, turbot population was concentrated in the Bulgarian – Romanian transboundary area and was shared between countries. The maxima of abundance indices occurred

in depths between 50 – 75 m in both areas. Length composition of turbot catches included size classes between 26.5 and 74.5 cm and low abundance of young individuals was observed. Age structure encompassed 2-8-year-old fish. Studies on the spawning process of turbot population show that an active

spawning process was Proteases inhibitor observed in the Romanian area, but, in Bulgarian waters, the majority of individuals were resting after spawning.”
“Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love and Elymus wawawaiensis J. Carlson & Barkworth are two native perennial grasses widely used for restoration in the Intermountain West. However, the rapid establishment and spread of Bromus tectorum L., an invasive annual grass, has led to a decline in the abundance of native perennial grasses. Proliferation of B. tectorum has been attributed to its early germination, superior cold-temperature growth, profuse root production, and high specific leaf area (SLA). To enhance restoration success, we compared B. tectorum to commercially available plant materials of two perennial rangeland bunchgrasses, P. spicata (cv. Whitmar, cv. Goldar, and Anatone Germplasm) and E. wawawaiensis (cv. Secar), for germination, seedling morphological traits, and growth rates Rabusertib manufacturer at the immature seedling

stage. We monitored germination and immature seedling growth in a growth chamber in two separate experiments, one under low (5/10 degrees C) and the other under high (15/20 degrees C) day/night temperatures. Compared to the average of the two perennials, B. tectorum was 93% (77%) greater at high (and low) temperature for root:shoot length ratio, but only 14% (14%) greater for root:shoot biomass ratio and 12% (19%) lower for SLA. This suggests that B. tectorum’s substantial investment in surface area of roots, rather than in shoot length, root biomass, or leaf area, may be responsible for the annual’s success at the early seedling stage. Compared to E. wawawaiensis, P. spicata averaged 65% (41%) higher shoot biomass, 39% (88%) higher root biomass, and 70% (10%) higher absolute growth rate, but 25% (15%) lower SLA and 15% (36%) lower specific root length (SRL) at high (and low) temperatures, respectively. Although P. spicata’s greater productivity may initially make for better seedling establishment than E.

65-31 0 kg/mol) The “click” reaction kinetics monitored by a com

65-31.0 kg/mol). The “click” reaction kinetics monitored by a combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and laser light scattering (LLS) reveals that the degree of self-polycondensation (DP) is related to the reaction time (t) as ln(DP + 1)/2 = ([A](0)k(AB,0))/beta arctan(beta t), where [A](0) and k(AB,0) are the initial alkyne concentration and the initial reaction rate between the azide and alkyne groups, respectively; beta is a constant and its reciprocal (1/beta) represents

the time at which k(AB) = k(AB,0)/2. The results reveal that 1/beta is scaled to the macromonomer’s molar concentration ([C]) and molar mass (M) as 1/beta [C]M–0.35(0.55) SU5402 indicating that 1/beta is governed by the interchain distance and diffusion, respectively. Each hyperbranched sample can be further fractionated

into a set of narrowly distributed “defect-free” hyperbranched chains with different molar masses by precipitation. The LLS results show, for the first time, that the root-mean-square radius of gyration (< R-g >) and hydrodynamic radius (< R-h >) of “defect-free” hyperbranched polystyrenes in toluene at 25 degrees C are scaled to the weight-average molar mass (M-w) as < R-g > = 5.53 x 10(-2)M(w)(0.464) and < R-h > = 2.95 x Selleckchem URMC-099 10(-2) M-w(0.489), respectively, where the exponents are smaller than the predicted 1/2.”
“Objective: To determine

the efficacy of at least 1 year of selleck products teriparatide therapy on bone mineral density (BMD), T-scores, and rates of occurrence of fractures in patients with a history of resolved secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and to compare its efficacy with that in patients without a history of resolved secondary hyperparathyroidism.\n\nMethods: In this retrospective study based on a search of electronic medical records, we collected the following data: patient demographics, doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, duration of teriparatide treatment, history and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism, BMD information, T-scores, and any history of fractures. Paired and unpaired t tests, the Fisher exact test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for statistical analysis.\n\nResults: Ninety-five patients (7 with a history of resolved secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and 88 without such a history) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics (demographics, median calcium and vitamin D supplementation doses, mean BMD, mean T-scores, and fracture rates before teriparatide therapy) were similar between the 2 groups.

Analysis of populations segregating for both M and Y also directl

Analysis of populations segregating for both M and Y also directly demonstrates linkage of the genes at a distance of similar to 12 CM. The data presented in this study may be useful for breeding dioecious and highly male monoecious lines utilized as the pollen parents for find protocol hybrid seed production, as well as for studies of the evolutionary history of sexual systems in this species, and can provide a molecular basis for positional cloning of the sex-determining genes.”
“Arginine (Arg) is a conditionally-essential amino

acid that is taken up by bovine mammary gland in excess of its output in milk. In this study we evaluated the effects of Arg concentration on the expression of casein and signaling pathway-related genes in mammary epithelial cells. The treatments (applied for 24 h) were designed to be devoid of Arg 0X (control; 0.00 mg/L), resemble the profile of Arg in casein (Arg 1X; 278.00 mg/L), be deficient [Arg 0.25X (69.50 mg/L) and Arg 0.5X (139.00 mg/L)], or be in excess of the amount in casein [Arg 2X (556.00 mg/L), Arg 4X (1,112 mg/L), and Arg 8X (2,224 mg/L)]. The expression of CSN1S, CSN3 and mTOR in the experimental MG-132 chemical structure groups was higher than those of the control group (P smaller than 0.05). Except for Arg 0.25X and Arg 8X (P bigger than 0.05), the expression of CSN1S2, CSN2 and JAK2 in other experimental groups was higher (P smaller than 0.05) than those in

the control group. Except for Arg 8X (P bigger than 0.05), the expression of STAT5 in the other experimental groups was higher

than those of the control (P smaller than 0.05). It also was observed that except for Arg 0.5X, the S6K expression was higher in other experimental groups than the control (P smaller than 0.05). In contrast, except for Arg 0.25X the other experimental groups resulted in lower 4EBP1 expression than the control (P smaller than 0.05). Among groups, the expression of CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3, JAK2, STAT5, mTOR and S6K gene was highest with Arg 2X (P smaller than 0.05); the reverse was true for 4EBP1 gene, with Selleckchem Lonafarnib the lowest expression in this group (P smaller than 0.05). Taken together, Arg appears to play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of casein genes and mTOR-related genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells.”
“Objective: To investigate uterine leiomyomata (UL) incidence in relation to polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and skin pigmentation. Rates of UL are 2-3 times higher in African Americans than in European Americans. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of UL. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s): Two thousand two hundred thirty-two premenopausal women first diagnosed with UL confirmed by ultrasound or surgery during 1997-2011 (cases) and 2,432 premenopausal women never diagnosed with UL through 2011 (controls).

Cancer cells were injected into 2 sites (subcutaneous and femur)

Cancer cells were injected into 2 sites (subcutaneous and femur) of nude mice with or without BMP2. Tumor size was determined by direct measurements for subcutaneous tumor formation and by femur radiographs. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed.\n\nResults. RhBMP2 inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Inhibition was associated

with changes in both the Smad and Wnt signaling pathways and was ultimately mediated through effects on various cell cycle proteins. Furthermore, rhBMP2 inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells injected both subcutaneously and intrafemorally.\n\nConclusion. In this model using human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, rhBMP2 has no stimulatory effect of tumor growth. Therefore, we can provide the basic science data to support the utilization in the management of patients with spine tumor in the future.”
“PURPOSE: To compare measurements of ultrasound Scheimpflug, and optical coherence pachymetric techniques to describe ablated depth after myopic astigmatic corneal laser refractive surgery and achieved refractive correction.\n\nMETHODS: Ninety-six myopic astigmatism treatments using LASIK or LASEK in 58 patients with 3-month follow-up were retrospectively analyzed. In all cases, standard

examinations, pre-/postoperative corneal topography, ocular aberrometry, and pachymetry were performed. SCHWIND Custom Ablation Manager (CAM) software and the ESIRIS laser were used for planning treatments and performing Crenigacestat price ablations. Outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, safety, and wavefront aberration. Pachymetry was taken before CAL-101 molecular weight treatment (ultrasound [DGH Pachette 2], Scheimpflug [Oculus Pentacam HR], and optical coherence pachymetry [OCP] [Heidelberg-Enigneering OCP]) after lifting the flap (Pachette 2, OCP), immediately after finishing ablation (Pachette 2, OCP), and at 3-month follow-up (Pachette 2, Pentacam

HR).\n\nRESULTS: At 3 months, 87 (91%) of eyes achieved 20/20 UCVA, and 89 (93%) of eyes were within +/- 0.50 diopters (D). Postoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was -0.15 +/- 0.30 D. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved in 30 (31%) of eyes. Differential pachymetry correlated to intended central ablation depth for all techniques: r(2)=0.60, P<.0001, slope 0.81 for ultrasound; r(2)=0.75, P<.0001, slope 0.97 for Scheimpflug; and r(2)=0.76 P<.0001, slope 1.03 for OCR Relative differential pachymetry correlated only marginally to achieved refractive correction for ultrasound and OCP.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Differential pachymetry is a metric useful for describing intended central ablation depth but not for achieved refractive correction.

are needed to aid diagnosis of ichthyobodosis and epizootiologica

are needed to aid diagnosis of ichthyobodosis and epizootiological studies on Ichthyobodo spp. We have designed a specific quantitative real-time Selonsertib nmr PCR assay targeting SSU rDNA for the detection of Ichthyobodo spp. infections. Also, several novel primer sets are presented for use in identification of Ichthyobodo spp. through PCR and sequencing. These PCR methods have been optimized and tested on samples from wild caught and farmed fish from different

geographical areas in Norway. The real-time PCR assay has been tested for sensitivity and efficiency, and we present data demonstrating its use for absolute quantification of Ichthyobodo salmonis in tissue samples through RT-qPCR and qPCR. We demonstrate the use of the

described set of molecular tools for the detection and sequencing of Ichthyobodo spp. from farmed and wild fish, and also show that they may aid the discovery of new Ichthyobodo species. The detection of light Ichthyobodo spp. infections through microscopy is time consuming and less sensitive compared to PCR methods. Initial real-time PCR testing and subsequent sequencing of positive samples is a powerful method that will increase diagnostic precision, aid carrier detection and promote species discoveries in the Ichthyobodonidae. Our preliminary observations indicate a high Ichthyobodo spp. diversity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Objective: Some studies have PD0325901 shown that laser phototherapy is able to increase skin flap viability by decreasing the necrotic area and increasing neoangiogenesis. However, the mechanism by which laser acts on cells is not fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of two different laser wavelengths at 30 and 40 J/cm(2) on the viability of skin flap in rats. Material and Methods: Sixty male animals were used in this study. They were distributed into the following groups (n = 12 each group): control group, group irradiated with 660nm at 30 J/cm(2); group irradiated with 780 nm, at 30 J/cm(2), group irradiated with

660nm at 40 J/cm(2); and group irradiated with 780nm at 40 J/cm(2). The skin flap was performed on the back Combretastatin A4 order of all animals studied, with a plastic sheet interposed between the flap and the donor site. Laser irradiation was done immediately after the surgery and on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 post-surgery. The percentage of the necrotic area of the flap was calculated at day 7 post-surgery. Results: Control group showed a necrotic area of 62.83%. Interestingly, no statistically significant differences were found among the treated groups and the control group. Conclusion: This present study showed that 660nm and 780nm lasers at doses of 30 and 40 J/cm(2) were not effective for decreasing the necrotic area of the skin flaps in rats.

The manganese-arsenate framework is formed by chains of edge-shar

The manganese-arsenate framework is formed by chains of edge-sharing MnO6 octahedra linked together via the AsO4 tetrahedra, yielding two distinct tunnels of potassium cations occupation. Pure solid K2Mn3(AsO4)(3) shows modest ionic conductivity with

an activation energy of 0.83 eV in the temperature range from 500 to 700 K.\n\nSingle crystals of the arsenate K2Mn3(AsO4)(3) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and complex impedance Compound C molecular weight measurements. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with an alluaudite-like structure and shows modest ionic conductivity.”
“Objective: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard for the surgical therapy of multivessel

coronary artery disease. To reduce the side effects, associated with standard extracorporeal circulation (ECC), a concept of minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC) was devised in our center. We report on our 10-year experience with the MECC for coronary revascularization. Methods: From January 1998 to August 2009, 2243 patients underwent CABG with MECC in our center. In a retrospective observational study, we analyzed indication, preoperative patient co-morbidity, postoperative BMS-754807 cell line clinical course, and perioperative outcome of all patients operated on with MECC. Furthermore, the risk factors for mortality in the MECC group were assessed. Results: Patients showed a mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) of 4.5 +/- 0.1%. The mean age of the patients was 66.8 +/- 9.1 years. The overall 30-day

mortality after CABG with MECC was 2.3%, ranging from 1.1% for elective to 13.0% for emergent patients and was significantly better than standard MLN2238 FCC. Only 15.3% (n = 344) of patients with MECC required intra-operative blood transfusion. Postoperative catecholamine support, red blood cell transfusion, need for hemodialysis, release of creatinine kinase, incidence of stroke, and postoperative delirium were low after MECC revascularization. Ejection fraction below 30% (odds ratio (OR): 5.1), emergent operation (OR: 9.4), and high-dose catecholamine therapy (OR: 2.6) were associated predictors for mortality. Conclusion: MECC until now is an established concept and has become an alternative for ECC in routine CABG in our center. The use of the MECC system is associated with low mortality and conversion rate. Excellent survival rates and low transfusion requirements in the perioperative course were achieved. (C) 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Intraspecific variation in plants plays a major role in the composition and diversity of the associated insect community. Resistance traits of plants are likely candidates mediating community composition.

Overall tree reproductive success was positively correlated with

Overall tree reproductive success was positively correlated with flower size, ovule numbers, style size, cross-sectional area of conductive tissue within the style (all of which were inter-correlated) and the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the bottom of the style. Significant Emricasan order positive correlations of reproductive

success and flower physical properties between different ramets of the same genotypes across seasons suggests a genetic basis to the variation observed. The majority of pollen tube attrition occurred within the first millimetre of the cut style and appeared to be associated with differences in style physiology. When examined as pairs within races the difference in reproductive success for the Western Otways pair was simply explained by differences in flower size and the number of ovules check details per flower. Physical features did not differ significantly for the Strzelecki Ranges pair, but the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the bottom of the style was lower in the less reproductively successful genotype, suggesting an endogenous physiological constraint to pollen tube growth. The

difference in reproductive success between the females from the Furneaux Group was associated with a combination of these factors.”
“New Findings What is the central question of this study? Telmisartan, an antihypertensive, has beneficial side-effects through its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) / agonism in white adipose tissue, besides its well-known

property of partial PPAR agonism. Here, we investigated a potential pan-PPAR role of this drug in the white and brown adipose tissues. What is the main finding and its importance? Telmisartan enhanced pan-PPAR gene and protein expression in adipose tissue (white and brown) in obese mice, with downstream effects that resulted in the management of insulin resistance, anti-inflammatory adipokine profile and thermogenesis induction. These findings are relevant and should be explored as new targets for controlling obesity and comorbidities through pan-PPAR-related effects. Telmisartan has previously been used to target obesity, showing peroxisome proliferator-activated this website receptor (PPAR) /-related effects in white adipose tissue (WAT). We sought to evaluate whether telmisartan enhances gene and protein expression of all PPAR isoforms in WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as their downstream effects upon insulin resistance, adipokine profile and adaptive thermogenesis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) or high-fat diet (HF; 50% lipids) for 10weeks. Animals were then randomly allocated into the following four groups: SC, SC-T, HF and HF-T. Telmisartan [10mg(kg diet)(-1)] was administered for 4 weeks in the diet.

Thus, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation, th

Thus, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation, the two central cascade systems of a vertebrate organism. This complement-inhibitory activity of plasmin provides a new explanation why pathogenic microbes utilize plasmin(ogen) for immune evasion and tissue penetration.”

leaf conductance (g(night)) and transpiration may have several adaptive benefits related to plant water, nutrient and carbon relations. Little is known, however, about genetic variation in g(night) and whether this variation correlates with other gas exchange traits related to water use and/or native habitat climate. We investigated g(night) in 12 natural accessions and SNX-5422 chemical structure three near isogenic lines (NILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic variation in g(night) was found for the natural accessions, and g(night) was negatively correlated with native habitat atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD(air)), suggesting lower g(night) may be favoured by natural selection in drier habitats. However, there were also significant genetic

correlations of g(night) with daytime gas exchange traits expected to affect plant fitness [i.e. daytime leaf conductance, photosynthesis and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE(i))], indicating that selection on daytime gas exchange traits may result in indirect selection on g(night). The comparison Selleckchem PD98059 of three NILs to their parental genotypes identified one quantitative trait locus (QTL) contributing to variation in g(night). Further characterization of genetic variation in g(night) within and among populations and species, and of associations with other traits and

native habitats will be needed to understand g(night) as a putatively adaptive trait.”
“To compare the accommodative amplitude (AA), facility (AF), and lag between dominant and non-dominant eyes.\n\nSeventy students [mean BI 6727 (SD) age: 21.2 (1.7) years, range 18-25] from Zahedan University of Medical Sciences were selected. Retinoscopy and subjective refraction was used to determine the refractive error. The hole-in-the card method was used to determine eye dominance. The accommodative amplitude (AA) was measured in the dominant and non-dominant eye using the push-up method, and accommodative facility (AF) using +/- 2.00 dioptre flipper lenses at 40 cm. Accommodative lag was determined using monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy at 40 cm.\n\nThe right eye was dominant in 53 subjects (75.7 %). There was no significant difference in refractive error (sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent) between dominant and non-dominant eyes. The mean (SD) for the AA, AF, and lag in dominant eyes was 12.48 (2.56) dioptres, 12.45 (4.83) cycles per minute, and 0.80 (0.27) dioptres respectively. The mean (SD) for the AA, AF, and lag in non-dominant eyes was 12.16 (2.37) dioptres, 12.20 (4.88) cycles per minute, and 0.83 (0.28) dioptres respectively.

Homozygosity for LCAT mutations underlies rare disorders characte

Homozygosity for LCAT mutations underlies rare disorders characterized by HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) deficiency while heterozygotes have half normal HDL-c levels. We studied the prevalence of LCAT mutations in referred patients with low HDL-c to better understand the molecular basis of low HDL-c in our patients. LCAT was sequenced in 98 patients referred for HDL-c <5th percentile and in four patients referred for low HDL-c and selleck kinase inhibitor corneal opacities. LCAT mutations were highly prevalent: in 28 of the 98 participants (29%), heterozygosity for nonsynonymous mutations was identified while 18 patients carried

the same mutation (p.T147I). The four patients with corneal opacity were compound heterozygotes. Tubastatin A clinical trial All previously identified mutations are documented to cause loss of catalytic activity. Nine novel mutations-c.402G>T (p.E134D), c.403T>A (p.Y135N), c.964C>T (p.R322C), c.296G>C (p.W99S), c.736G>T (p.V246F), c.802C>T (p.R268C), c.945G>A (p.W315X), c.1012C>T

(p.L338F), and c.1039C>T (p.R347C)-were shown to be functional through in vitro characterization. The effect of several mutations on the core protein structure was studied by a three-dimensional (3D) model. Unlike previous reports, functional mutations in LCAT were found in 29% of patients with low HDL-c, thus constituting a common cause of low HDL-c in referred patients in The Netherlands. Hum Mutat 32: 1290-1298, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is as an indicator of poor treatment outcome. Consistently, hypoxic HCT116 colorectal cancer cells are resistant to oxaliplatin, although the mechanistic basis is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relative contribution of HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1)-mediated gene expression and drug penetrance to oxaliplatin resistance using three-dimensional spheroids.\n\nMETHODS: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha function was suppressed by the stable expression of a dominant-negative form in HCT116 cells (DN). Cells were drug exposed as monolayer or multicellular spheroid cultures. Cells

residing at differing oxygenation status were isolated from Hoechst 33342-treated spheroids using flow cytometry. Sub-populations were subjected to clonogenic survival PND-1186 inhibitor assays and to Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy to determine oxaliplatin uptake.\n\nRESULTS: In spheroids, a sensitivity gradient (hypoxic < aerobic) was revealed by survival assays and this correlated with levels of platinum-bound DNA. The resistance of hypoxic sub-populations exceeded relative changes in adduct levels, implicating factors other than drug penetrance in cell response. Dominant-negative monolayer cells showed no resistance to oxaliplatin in hypoxia and spheroids; the relative resistance of hypoxic compared with aerobic sub-populations was reduced compared with those from controls.

591 + 1 200 x age +/- A 1 470 (R (2) = 0 90) and y = -22 120 + 1

591 + 1.200 x age +/- A 1.470 (R (2) = 0.90) and y = -22.120 + 1.663 x age +/- A 1.869 (R (2) = 0.91), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body FK228 solubility dmso volume ratio was gradually decreasing with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers revealed the following models: y =

-15.188 + 6.332 x ln(age) +/- A 0.629 (R (2) = 0.72) and y = -15.991 + 6.600 x ln(age) +/- A 0.629 (R (2) = 0.74) for length, y = -6.716 + 2.814 x ln(age) +/- A 0.362 (R (2) = 0.61) and y = -7.058 + 2.976 x ln(age) +/- A 0.323 (R (2) = 0.67) for width, y = -5.665 + 0.591 x age +/- A 1.251 (R (2) = 0.86) and y = -11.281 + 0.853 x age +/- A 1.653 (R (2) = 0.78) for CSA, and y = -9.279 + 0.849 x age +/- A 2.302 (R (2) = 0.65) and y = -16.117 + 1.155 Apoptosis inhibitor x age +/- A 1.832 (R (2) = 0.84) for volume, respectively.\n\nNeither sex nor laterality differences are found in the morphometric parameters of evolving T6 vertebra and its three ossification centers. The growth dynamics of the T6 vertebral body follow logarithmically for its height, and both sagittal and transverse diameters, linearly for its CSA, and four-degree polynomially for its volume. The three ossification centers of T6 vertebra increase logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters, and linearly

in both CSA and volume. The age-specific reference intervals for evolving T6 vertebra present the normative values of potential relevance in the diagnosis of congenital spinal defects.”

The Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC) that was developed in Canada is a widely used quantitative measure of parents’ perceptions of the extent to which family-centred care is conducted. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the MPOC. Methods The translation of the MPOC was performed according to international standards for translation of questionnaires. The Canadian validation procedures were followed, consisting of concurrent validity, construct check details validity and testretest reliability. The Japanese version of the MPOC was completed by 261 families with children receiving rehabilitation services. Results The Japanese version of the MPOC showed adequate internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, varying between 0.76 and 0.94. The construct validity was examined with confirmative analysis of each scale structure. Correlations between the MPOC scale scores and satisfaction questions scores were positive, and that to a question about parents’ stress was negative. For testretest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients were between 0.76 and 0.89. Conclusions The Japanese version of the MPOC has good psychometric properties and can be recommended for evaluation of the processes of child rehabilitation in Japan.”
“Following injury, keratinocytes switch gene expression programs from the one that promotes differentiation to the one that supports migration.