6, 22, 31, 32 and 33 The study was conducted at the dedicated animal operation center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, with approval of the Animal Care and Use Committee. Thirty-four adult mongrel dogs of both sexes with an average body weight of 15 kg (range, 12-18 kg) were used. The canine model was chosen for its anatomic, physiologic, and immunologic similarity to humans.34 The animals were fasted from solid food LDE225 manufacturer for 48 hours before procedures but were allowed full access to water. All procedures were performed in a supine position with the animals under general anesthesia (pentobarbital
1 mg/kg, IM) and oxygen supplied after endotracheal intubation. A sterile forward-viewing, double working channel endoscope (2T200; Olympus Optical Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) inside an overtube was
inserted into the stomach followed by lavage of the stomach with 1000 mL 10% povidone-iodine solution through the working channel of the endoscope. The transgastric access site was located in the anterior gastric wall at the junction between the gastric body and antrum. A needle-knife sphincterotome (Boston Scientific Microvasive, Natick, MA) was used to create a 2-mm full-thickness incision, through which a guidewire was introduced and advanced into the peritoneal cavity. After dilatation of the incision site for 60 seconds with a 20-mm dilation balloon (CRE balloon, Boston Scientific Microvasive), both balloon and endoscope were advanced into the peritoneal cavity through the enlarged transgastric access. The animals were then subjected to an exploratory peritoneoscopy of 20 minutes and a gastrotomy http://www.selleckchem.com/products/nutlin-3a.html closure, after being randomly assigned into 1 of the 4 procedure groups
(see below) in either the survival or nonsurvival study. The survival and nonsurvival Bcl-w studies were carried out simultaneously. Endoscopic clips (HX-5LR-1; Olympus) were first applied to both ends of the incision to narrow the span of the gastric opening and then sequentially toward the center of the incision (Fig. 1A). The number of clips and time consumed for each closure were documented. The details of this procedure were described in the previous study.30 In brief, a free greater omentum flap near the serosal gastrotomy site was gently pulled into the gastric cavity by a pair of biopsy forceps. The omental flap was placed approximately 2 to 3 cm into the gastric cavity and then attached to the gastric mucosa with endoclips. All clips were positioned around the gastrotomy site to ensure effective sealing of the gastric defect approximately 1 to 2 cm away from the defects (Fig. 1B). No clips were deployed directly to close the gastrotomy site. After completion of the peritoneoscopy, the endoscope was removed and exchanged with a sterile single-channel upper endoscope (GIF 160; Olympus) mounted with a transparent applicator cap containing a modified 12-mm OTSC clip.