Up to now, there have been some different models that have limited prognostic value in HCC  and . On the basis of multivariate analysis, we have established a simple preoperative prognostic multiple-factor score model; we found that high NLR, size of tumor > 5 cm, III-IV of TNM stage, and AST > 40 U/l were identified as independent prognostic
factors for DFS (Figure 3, A and B, and Table 3) and OS ( Figure 3, C and D, and Table 3). This is consistent with several previous reports that tumor size > 5 cm was a significant risk factor of recurrence after liver resection ,  and  and AST is an independent learn more predictor for DFS in patients with HCC ,  and . Patients with HCC with small tumors (< 5 cm) have a better prognosis  and ; larger tumors (> 5 cm) are reported to be associated with greater likelihood of vascular invasion and higher recurrence risk  and . The follow-up data by univariate analysis revealed that tumor size > 5 cm, multiple tumor
number, III-IV of TNM stage, PVTT, distant metastasis, and AST > 40 U/l were associated with a shorter DFS and OS, and recurrence was associated with a shorter OS (Table 2). Although univariate analysis in this study showed that multiple tumor number, PVTT, and distant metastasis were preoperative prognostic predictors of poor DFS and OS, none of these factors were identified as independent predictors by multivariate analysis Antidiabetic Compound Library order Urease (Table 3). However, this result did not mean that these factors are not associated with recurrence and metastasis and are not potential prognostic factors for HCC after resection. For example, tumor number indicating a unifocal or multifocal tumor origin is an important determinant of prognosis in patients with HCC undergoing several kinds of treatments, and individuals with solitary HCC have relatively better survival rate and prognosis than those with multinodular tumors . Previous study has also shown that PVTT is an independent predictor of microvascular invasion . The main cause of metastatic and recurrence
in HCC is that tumor cells tend to invade portal veins leading to PVTT, which is a unique manner of HCC dissemination and is associated with poor prognosis of HCC  and . PVTT, arising from the invasion of HCC cells into the portal vein, is well acknowledged as a special type of metastasis in HCC  that is characterized by vascular invasion and a more aggressive phenotype. Taken together, our results showed that high NLR (> 2.31) was an independent predictor for DFS and OS; elevated preoperative NLR reflecting tumor burden, invasion, and metastasis indirectly suggested that NLR might be a novel biomarker for HCC prognosis. We established a multiple-factor scoring system in which NLR is a major component to predict each patient’s prognosis.