Up to now, there have been some different models that have limite

Up to now, there have been some different models that have limited prognostic value in HCC [31] and [32]. On the basis of multivariate analysis, we have established a simple preoperative prognostic multiple-factor score model; we found that high NLR, size of tumor > 5 cm, III-IV of TNM stage, and AST > 40 U/l were identified as independent prognostic

factors for DFS (Figure 3, A and B, and Table 3) and OS ( Figure 3, C and D, and Table 3). This is consistent with several previous reports that tumor size > 5 cm was a significant risk factor of recurrence after liver resection [33], [34] and [35] and AST is an independent learn more predictor for DFS in patients with HCC [36], [37] and [38]. Patients with HCC with small tumors (< 5 cm) have a better prognosis [39] and [40]; larger tumors (> 5 cm) are reported to be associated with greater likelihood of vascular invasion and higher recurrence risk [33] and [34]. The follow-up data by univariate analysis revealed that tumor size > 5 cm, multiple tumor

number, III-IV of TNM stage, PVTT, distant metastasis, and AST > 40 U/l were associated with a shorter DFS and OS, and recurrence was associated with a shorter OS (Table 2). Although univariate analysis in this study showed that multiple tumor number, PVTT, and distant metastasis were preoperative prognostic predictors of poor DFS and OS, none of these factors were identified as independent predictors by multivariate analysis Antidiabetic Compound Library order Urease (Table 3). However, this result did not mean that these factors are not associated with recurrence and metastasis and are not potential prognostic factors for HCC after resection. For example, tumor number indicating a unifocal or multifocal tumor origin is an important determinant of prognosis in patients with HCC undergoing several kinds of treatments, and individuals with solitary HCC have relatively better survival rate and prognosis than those with multinodular tumors [41]. Previous study has also shown that PVTT is an independent predictor of microvascular invasion [42]. The main cause of metastatic and recurrence

in HCC is that tumor cells tend to invade portal veins leading to PVTT, which is a unique manner of HCC dissemination and is associated with poor prognosis of HCC [43] and [44]. PVTT, arising from the invasion of HCC cells into the portal vein, is well acknowledged as a special type of metastasis in HCC [45] that is characterized by vascular invasion and a more aggressive phenotype. Taken together, our results showed that high NLR (> 2.31) was an independent predictor for DFS and OS; elevated preoperative NLR reflecting tumor burden, invasion, and metastasis indirectly suggested that NLR might be a novel biomarker for HCC prognosis. We established a multiple-factor scoring system in which NLR is a major component to predict each patient’s prognosis.

1A and B) High expression of Ki67 was observed following polyclo

1A and B). High expression of Ki67 was observed following polyclonal T cell stimulation

with αCD3/αCD28; Ki67 was observed responses were high on day 1 already, peaked on day 3, and declined thereafter (Fig. 1A and C). Next, we assessed proliferation by Ki67 detection in whole blood from 15 healthy donors, after 6-day culture with no antigen, or with PPD. All donors had undetectable or very low frequencies of Ki67+ CD4+ T cells in unstimulated blood (median, 0.07%). PPD stimulation resulted in higher frequencies of Ki67+ CD4+ T cells in all donors (median, see more 46.1%, Fig. 1D). We also determined whether proliferation could be detected by assessing Ki67 expression in PBMC. Again, Ki67 expression identified in vitro CD4+ T cell proliferation; frequencies of Ki67+ cells after PPD stimulation consistently

exceeded those in unstimulated PBMC, at a median of 21.7% ( Fig. 1E). These data suggest that in 6-day PBMC or whole blood culture with antigen, Ki67 expression is up-regulated in T cells undergoing in vitro proliferation. Next, we compared our Ki67-based proliferation assay with more traditional flow cytometric proliferation assays, i.e., those measuring BrdU incorporation and dye dilution of OG (Fig. 2). BrdU is incorporated into cells undergoing DNA synthesis, and is typically added during the last 2 to 24 h of a proliferation assay; in this study we added BrdU for the last 5 h of the 6-day culture. The frequency of Ki67+ CD4+ T cells was higher than the frequency of BrdU+ cells after whole blood stimulation with PPD or TB10.4 protein (Fig. 2A, B and C). Importantly, all BrdU+ cells co-expressed Selleckchem GSK269962 Ki67 (Fig. 2A). The OG

assay requires uniform labelling of cells prior to long-term culture. In contrast to results from the BrdU assay, the OG and Ki67 assays yielded remarkably similar frequencies of proliferating, specific T cells; Ki67+ and OGlow CD4+ T cell frequencies were not different in PPD or TB10.4-stimulated PBMC (Fig. 2D, E and F). Frequencies PLEK2 of Ki67+ CD4+ T cells correlated strongly with BrdU+ CD4+ T cell frequencies (Fig. 3A and B). Similarly, a strong correlation was found between frequencies of antigen-specific Ki67+ and OGlow CD4+ T cells (Fig. 3C and D). These data show that frequencies of proliferating T cells detected by Ki67 expression agree with frequencies detected with conventional proliferation assays. The functional capacity of cells that have expanded during the 6-day culture may be assessed by short-term polyclonal re-stimulation with PMA and ionomycin on day 6. This induces cytokine production, which can be measured by intracellular staining. We compared expression of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α by Ki67+ CD4+ T cells with expression of these cytokines in BrdU+ or OGlow CD4+ T cells. When Ki67 and BrdU assay results were compared, similar expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α was observed in proliferating CD4+ T cells.

e , the beebread-fed bees, had active ovaries This result is con

e., the beebread-fed bees, had active ovaries. This result is consistent with the diet inducing intense protein synthesis to provide resources for ovary activation. Infection significantly impaired ovary activation in the beebread-fed

bees strongly suggesting that diet-derived resources were diverted away from reproduction to attend to the critical needs of infection. Our results linking a pollen-derived diet selleck chemical (beebread), but not royal jelly, with ovary activation seem in contrast to previous studies (Lin and Winston, 1998 and Altaye et al., 2010) showing that royal jelly promoted ovarian activation better than pollen or a pollen substitute. Furthermore, it was already considered (Schäfer et al., 2006 and references therein) that in contrast to pollen, the royal jelly is rapidly and completely digested, whereas feeding on pollen would be physiologically more costly. In our experiments, however, the caged bees were fed on fresh beebread directly collected from the hive stocks, making it difficult to compare our results with those obtained by feeding bees on pollen or pollen substitutes. Beebread is extensively manipulated

by the bees and has a different composition and nutritional quality. It is made of partially digested pollen mixed with honey and enzymes, and certainly it is more easily digestible and utilizable than pollen. The natural and basic nutrients for the young worker bees, like those used in our experiments, are pollen and honey. Pollen is consumed by these bees, which have a high digesting capacity and click here use pollen as raw material for jelly production in the hypopharyngeal glands. In colony conditions, the jelly is transferred

via trophallaxis mainly to larvae and queens, but also to workers and drones (Crailsheim, 1992 and Crailsheim, 1998), emphasizing that the young workers are producers of royal jelly, rather than recipients (Thompson et al., 2006). The caged bees in our experiments may have directly PTK6 used the products derived from pollen (beebread) digestion for ovary activation. It is also possible, however, that the digested products were also used for jelly production. Without brood to rear, the jelly may then have been transferred via trophallaxis from one caged bee to another, thus contributing as raw material and energy for ovary activation. Ovary activation in queenless workers depends on the balance of nutrients in the diet. Even being artificial, a balanced diet may favor ovary activation (Pirk et al., 2010). By presenting queenless bees with choices between complementary diets made with varied protein to carbohydrate proportions, Altaye et al. (2010) highlighted the importance of the optimal balance of nutrients for ovary activation. The lack of ovary activation in our bees fed on royal jelly plus syrup may tentatively be ascribed to an imbalance in the protein to carbohydrate ratio, but this requires further investigation. It is known that the A.

, 2010, Hamilton et al , 2010, Martin et al , 2009, Naeser et al

, 2010, Hamilton et al., 2010, Martin et al., 2009, Naeser et al., 2005b, Naeser et al., 2005a, Naeser et al., 2010 and Weiduschat et al., 2011). Naeser and colleagues and we have employed an approach that involves stimulating various sites in the right inferior frontal gyrus as well as the right motor cortex, in order to determine whether there is a specific site that responds best to TMS. Both our preliminary data and that of Naeser and colleagues Bleomycin molecular weight suggest that TMS-induced improvements in naming are often associated with stimulation

of the pars triangularis, but not with stimulation of other nearby right hemisphere sites (Hamilton et al., 2010 and Naeser et al., 2010). Although more data are needed to support this finding conclusively, we believe it is unlikely in the setting of large left-hemisphere lesions, that the inhibitory transcallosal connections between left and right hemisphere regions would be so specific as to account for differences in performance that are linked to a single site in the right hemisphere. An alternative explanation for these findings is

that the right hemisphere may contribute to language function in chronic aphasic patients, but not always efficiently. By this account, TMS applied to different right perisylvian regions in patients may differentially affect specific components of a remodeled language network. Fossariinae In some cases, inhibitory stimulation of a right-hemisphere target might increase the overall function of the language network by decreasing the contribution http://www.selleckchem.com/products/fg-4592.html of a dysfunctional element in that network. Our own ALE meta-analysis findings suggest that the pars triangularis is activated in a homotopic manner but is not homologous in its function compared to sites in the left hemisphere language network in normal individuals (Turkeltaub et

al., submitted for publication). In other words, activity in this site is unlikely to contribute efficiently to the operation of reorganized language networks in the right or left hemisphere. Extending this reasoning further, inefficient neural activity in the right pars triangularis may contribute deleterious noise to the operation of reorganized language circuits. Thus inhibition of this site may result in beneficial suppression of a cortical region that would otherwise have an adverse effect on performance. The notion that noninvasive brain stimulation improves the functionality of an inefficiently reorganized language network fits one aspect of the data that is not readily explained by other hypotheses, namely the finding that language function improves over the course of months following stimulation (Martin et al., 2004, Naeser et al., 2005a and Naeser et al., 2010).

In addition, the (CIW)14 layer is thicker in September 1997 This

In addition, the (CIW)14 layer is thicker in September 1997. This indicates that the

volume of (CIW)14 has increased. This decrease of temperature and increase in thickness can be explained only if there is advection of cold water with the upper layer from the strait. Since the lower layer is colder in the spring months, the (CIW)14 thickness (9–70 m) covers the lower layer at station K0 in May 1997. In 1998, (CIW)14 is observed from May to September at station K2, from May to August at stations K0, B13 and M8, and from June to August at stations B7 and B2. Rapamycin datasheet In July 1998, the upper layer is colder along the strait so that the temperature of the surface layer at station B2 is less than 13.0 °C (Figure 6). For this reason, the (CIW)14 layer starts at 1 m depth at station B2 (Table 1). On the other hand, at station M8, the (CIW)14 layer is thicker in this month. Monthly fluctuations of the thickness of (CIW)14 at station M8 indicate the entrance of cold water to the Sea of Marmara through the strait. In September, (CIW)14 is very thin at station K2 and does not enter the strait. In 1999, cold water (CIW)14 is

observed in the Black Sea exit of the strait (station K2) and in the Sea of Marmara (at station M8) from June to October. At station K2, excluding ITF2357 solubility dmso the upper 7 m, the temperature of the entire water column is less than 14 °C in May 1999. The upper limit of the (CIW)14 is found at 38 m depth in July at station K2 owing to Danubian-influenced water, as mentioned before (Figure 2). The thickness of (CIW)14 increases in August 1999 at station K2. In September, the amount of (CIW)14 decreases at station K2 and it does not enter the strait. On the other hand, in October 1999, the amount of (CIW)14 increases compared to September and its minimum temperature is ∼ 7.9 °C compared to 11.6 °C in September. This increase is thought to be due to the advection of CIW to the area by the Rim Current. In 2000, CHIR-99021 clinical trial the thickness of (CIW)14 decreases in both exits of the strait. In the Black Sea exit of the strait, (CIW)14 is not observed after July, and consequently, it is

not observed at station M8 either. Examination of (CIW)14 indicates that the cold water existing in the Black Sea exit of the strait influences the cold water in the Sea of Marmara. The annual and monthly fluctuations in the amount of (CIW)14 have similar characteristics in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. This similarity leads to the consideration that the cold layer in the Sea of Marmara is mostly supported by the cold layer in the Black Sea. Seasonal and spatial variations of (CIW)14 (modified CIW) in the two exit regions of the Strait of Istanbul are studied. (CIW)14 is usually observed from May to September in the Black Sea exit of the strait. In some years it is also observed in October or November.

This article summarizes the spectrum of shared and unique genetic

This article summarizes the spectrum of shared and unique genetic alterations characteristic of AC and SqCC, from gene expression signatures and patterns of DNA methylation and copy number alterations to mutations and

chromosomal rearrangements identified by genome sequencing. The therapeutic implications of ‘actionable’ alterations and emerging practices Transferase inhibitor aimed at creating a personalized approach to the treatment of lung cancer and improving survival are also addressed. While all histological subtypes of lung cancer are associated with cigarette smoking, SqCC and SCLC (Fig. 1A), both of which arise predominantly in the central airways are most strongly associated with a history of smoking. Within the last few decades, there has been a dramatic shift in the global trends of lung cancer histology, with a steady decline in SCLC and SqCC such that AC is now the most common subtype of lung cancer (Fig. 1B). These

changes are largely believed to be due to widespread changes in cigarette composition (lower tar and nicotine content) which has led to a change in smoking behavior with smokers smoking more frequently and inhaling deeper in an attempt to achieve the same effect, causing tobacco carcinogens to be deposited further into the lung periphery. AC, now accounts for roughly half of all lung cancer cases and typically arises in the glandular epithelium of the lung parenchyma from type II pneumocytes or clara Bacterial neuraminidase cells whereas SqCC, which accounts for ∼30% of lung cancer and originates from basal cells in the central airways [7] (Fig. 1A). Large cell carcinomas (LCC), Z-VAD-FMK nmr are a diverse group of poorly or undifferentiated tumors with poor prognosis that can have neuroendocrine features and can harbor components or AC, SqCC or SCLC. In addition to these three main subtypes, there exists a small subset of tumors with mixed, (sarcomatoid and adenosquamous carcinomas) or not otherwise specified (NOS) histologies and clinical characteristics

that are indistinct from other subtypes. Due to the therapeutic importance of distinguishing histological subtypes, in 2011 the IASLC/ATS/ERS proposed new guidelines for the pathological classification of NOS tumors [7]. The application of immunohistochemical panels containing a mixture of AC and SqCC markers and EGFR and ALK mutation testing have refined NSCLC classification, significantly reducing the percent of NOS tumors diagnosed [8] and [9]. The inclusion of additional molecular alterations with evidence supporting a subtype specific pattern of alteration (ex: FGFR1 amplification and DDR2 mutation in SqCC) as well as molecular profiling of less characterized subtypes such as LCC will provide insight into the biology of these tumors and potentially identify novel genetic alterations that could aid in further refining pathological diagnosis and classification of NSCLC subtypes.

We found only two RCTs that studied non-surgical treatments In o

We found only two RCTs that studied non-surgical treatments. In one study (Shibata et al., 2001) intra-articular corticosteroid injections were compared to an hyaluronate injection, but no evidence in favour of one of these treatments was found. In the other RCT (Vecchio et al., 1993) no evidence was found for the effectiveness of a suprascapular nerve block with dexamethosone versus placebo to treat RotCuffTear. The systematic review of Ainsworth and Lewis (2007) focused on exercise therapy in the management of full-thickness RotCuffTears. Only observation studies

were included and, similar to the findings in our systematic review, no RCTs investigating effectiveness find more of exercise therapy were found. Although it was concluded that exercise therapy (either in isolation or given as part of non-operative treatment) has some benefit, no firm conclusions could Epacadostat nmr be drawn. Therefore,

evidence-based conclusions regarding the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for treating the RotCuffTear remain elusive. RCR should compare favourably with other medical interventions and improve quality of life. (Adla et al., 2010). We only found one RCT that compared non-surgical to surgical interventions. Moderate evidence for effectiveness was found in favour of surgery compared to physiotherapy (exercise therapy) for were small (<1 cm) or medium sized (1–3 cm) symptomatic RotCuffTears (Moosmayer et al., 2010). More high-quality RCTs are needed to study non-surgical versus surgical treatments to treat RotCuffTears. Various surgical approaches and techniques Casein kinase 1 to treat RotCuffTears have been described. We included 10 RCTs regarding surgical repair of the RotCuffTear. Moderate evidence was found in favour of TB versus SS. Limited evidence in favour of Debrid versus Repair was found and no significant differences (thus no evidence) were found

in favour of any one of all other surgical or anchor techniques. None of the included RCTs studied an optimal timing strategy for surgery. Defining the timing of surgery may play an important role with regard to good results of surgery; future studies should explore this aspect. Eight of our included RCTs concentrated on post-operative treatments. In these trials, different exercise therapies, or different immobilization techniques used after RCR, were compared to each other. However, no benefit in favour of any one of the treatments was found. None of these trials focused on immobilization versus exercise therapy. There are several reasons why treatment of RotCuffTears is relatively difficult to understand. First, tendinitis and bursitis of the shoulder are difficult to differentiate from one another. (Huisstede et al., 2007) To identify a RotCuffTear, the patients should be referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is one of the most accurate non-invasive tools to detect a RotCuffTear, with a specificity of 67–89% compared with findings at arthroscopy. (Shellock et al., 2001 and Teefey et al.

, 2004), status epilepticus and multiple sclerosis (for review se

, 2004), status epilepticus and multiple sclerosis (for review see Ruiz de Almodovar et al., 2009). Members of the VEGF family include VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, -E and placental growth factor (PlGF). VEGF-B, -C, -D and -E have thus far been less well studied than VEGF-A (for review see Ruiz De Almodovar et al., 2009). VEGF plays a central neurotrophic and neuroprotective role in the CNS by promoting angiogenesis, regulation of vasculogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF multiple functions result Romidepsin from its mediation by specific tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptors, which besides being expressed on endothelial cells are also expressed on neurons. VEGF receptors

(VEGFRs) can participate in various biological functions, including cell survival, migration, and differentiation Cabozantinib research buy as well as vascular sprouting, stabilization, and permeability (Shibuya and Claesson-Welsh, 2006). Members of the VEGFR family include VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, also known as Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1) and fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1)/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), respectively (Olsson et al., 2006). This study investigates if the tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, Flt-1, is part of the events which course with alterations of permeability in a model of BBB breakdown. The distribution and expressional changes of Flt-1 were studied

in the rat hippocampus through immunohistochemistry following intra-peritoneal injection of P. nigriventer venom; fourteen days and 8–10 weeks aged rats were used in order to demonstrate a possible age-dependent cellular response to venom. By immunohistochemistry it is possible to determine the expression of proteins involved in cell signaling for a whole population of neurons in selected brain regions, what is of pivotal importance in pathologic states induced by xenobiotics. Lyophilized P. nigriventer crude venom (PNV) was supplied by Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) and stored at −20 °C until use. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) 3 weeks of age, obtained

from the Multidisciplinary Center for Biological Investigation at the State University of Campinas (CEMIB/Unicamp) were housed under standard animal colony conditions, 5/cage, at 23 °C on a 12 h light/dark cycle Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 with lights on at 6 a.m. and with free access to food and water until reaching 8–10-week-old. At least 24 h before the experiment, the animals were transported in their home cages from the animal colony to the laboratory and allowed to habituate. Male Wistar rats on post-natal day 14 (P14) were taken directly from CEMIB to the laboratory and experiments were done in the next day. Dose–response trials using intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.85 mg/kg, 1.7 mg/kg and 2.55 mg/kg venom concentration was previously conducted and the 1.7 mg/kg dose was the one which better reproduced the signs of envenoming formerly obtained with intravenous (i.v.

However, it is also likely that the presence of associated low 18

However, it is also likely that the presence of associated low 18F-FDG activities of some tumors or tumor regions [10] and [11] is probably due to a lack of hypoxia in such tumors or regions of the tumors. Negative 18F-FDG uptake does not necessarily mean benign disease. In both primary lesion and metastases of patients with NSCLC, Beer et al. [12] demonstrated a mismatched pattern of intratumoral distribution of 18F-FDG and 18F-galacto-RGD, that is, 18F-FDG did not accumulate as much in well-perfused regions of the tumor identified by increased 18F-galacto-RGD, which binds to the αvβ3 expressed by endothelial cells. Therefore, in patients, well-perfused cancer tissue is associated with

low 18F-FDG uptake or low glucose demand. Pexidartinib manufacturer Accordingly, assumptions in 18F-FDG PET interpretations for cancer management should 17-AAG order be reconsidered because low 18F-FDG uptakes in tumor following treatment may not necessarily mean the absence of viable cancer cells. 18F-FDG preferentially accumulates in hypoxic cancer cells, and 3′-deoxy-3′-18F-fluorothymidine accumulates mostly in proliferative cancer cells, which are usually not hypoxic [7] and [9]. We have recently proposed that the combination of 18F-FDG and 3′-deoxy-3′-18F-fluorothymidine with single PET imaging would give a more accurate

representation of viable tumor tissue volume than a PET image obtained with either tracer alone [32]. We emphasize here that the DAR signal of 18F-FDG is directly contributed by positrons and not gamma photons. In a pilot study, we have inserted Selleckchem Cobimetinib a piece of blanket poly-l-lysine–coated glass microscope between the plate and the tumor section slide, and most 18F-FDG signals were shielded, indicating the role of the positron in 18F-FDG autoradiography. We are confident that the spatial correlation between 18F-FDG autoradiography and immunohistochemical staining photos presented in this article is true. In the mouse model of ascites

carcinoma, ascites and floating ascites carcinomas are severely hypoxic, contradicting the assumed ample oxygen condition of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model in which the “Warburg effect” was derived from. Glucose utilization measured by 18F-FDG uptake increases in hypoxic but not normoxic cancer cells, posing a challenge for the conventional Warburg effect. The knowledge enriches the better understanding of 18F-FDG in oncology application. This study was supported, in part, by Kentucky Lung Cancer Research Program Award (cycle 9) and National Institute of Health grant R01 CA84596. The authors have no conflict of interest relevant to this article. “
“An estimated 748,300 new liver cancer cases and 695,900 cancer deaths occurred worldwide in 2008. Half of these cases and deaths were estimated to occur in China [1]. There are significant geographical differences in the morbidity and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) all over the world.

polymorpha cultivation

polymorpha cultivation MDX-1106 activities (e.g., utilization of the zebra mussel biomass in husbandry). The Curonian Lagoon is a large (1.584 km2), shallow (average depth ∼3.8 m) and mainly freshwater coastal body connected to the south-eastern

Baltic Sea by a narrow (0.4–1.1 km) Klaipeda strait (Fig. 1). The Nemunas River brings 98% of the total freshwater runoff and enters the lagoon in its central area, dividing the water body into two different parts (Gasiūnaitė et al., 2008). The northern part is a transitory riverine-like system transporting fresh water into the sea, where salinity may episodically increase up to 5–6 psu during wind driven short-term inflow events. Seawater inflows of 1–6 days duration are most common and the seawater intrusions are usually restricted to the northern part of the lagoon in rare cases propagating ≥40 km into the lagoon. The lacustrine BIRB 796 southern part is characterized by a relatively closed

water circulation and lower current velocities. Therefore, it serves as a main depositional area of the lagoon (Daunys et al., 2006, Galkus and Jokšas, 1997, Gasiūnaitė, 2000 and Pustelnikov, 1983). Most likely, the zebra mussel D. polymorpha was introduced into the Curonian Lagoon in the early 1800s. The molluscs would have been attached to timber rafts transported via the Central European invasion corridor ( Olenin et al., 1999). However, it may have Ixazomib mouse spread much earlier. According to palaeontological

data, Dreissena could have existed in the Baltic Sea area during the last interglacial, later becoming extinct, before being re-introduced in the early 1800s ( Buynevich et al., 2011 and Starobogatov and Andreyeva, 1994). Zebra mussels are now very abundant in the Curonian Lagoon. They occupy the hard substrates (boulders, embankments, hydrotechnical structures) and soft bottoms (sand, silt or mud) down to 3–4 m depth (Zaiko et al., 2010). The largest area occupied by a zebra mussel community is located in the central part of the lagoon (Gasiūnaitė et al., 2008, Olenina, 1997 and Zaiko et al., 2009). Zebra mussels (D. polymorpha) were collected twice per year, in June and September, in 2006, 2007 and 2008, from two sites within the area of the natural zebra mussel distribution ( Fig. 1). Clumps of mussels were collected manually by wading in the littoral, at 1–1.5 m depth. After collection, mussels were immediately transported to the laboratory, where individual mussels were separated from clumps and frozen at −20 °C until analysis of toxins was performed. Three size classes of the collected mussels were distinguished: <10 mm length, 10–30 mm length and >30 mm length. In total, 108 mussels were collected and analyzed. Sediment core samples were collected from a boat in 2008, July and October.