Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I See Instructions for Auth

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for

a complete description of levels of evidence.”
“Solar cells in modules are reverse biased when they are shaded. This can selleck products lead to diode breakdown and eventually to the occurrence of hot spots, which may, in the extreme case, destroy the module by thermal degradation. We observed at least three different types of diode breakdown in multicrystalline silicon solar cells. One of them is found to be related to the recombination activity of defects. This type is indicated by a slow increase in the reverse current with reverse bias and a relatively low breakdown voltage around -10 V. The local breakdown voltage depends significantly on the level of contamination of the material. When the solar cell is reverse biased, the breakdown sites emit bright light which shows a broad spectral distribution in the visible range with a maximum at 700 nm. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3224908]“
“Every NVP-BSK805 datasheet year, 7% to 15% of preschool children are found to be underqualified for first grade. We examined whether sleep disturbances are factors in school readiness and their association with neurocognitive skills and behavior. The population included 148

kindergarten Students. The study group consisted Of 50 students who were assessed by the educational authority as unready For first grade. Children who were scheduled to attend first grade (n = 98) were in the control group. All children/parents Proteases inhibitor filled in a sleep questionnaire and Underwent a week of actigraphic sleep/wake study as well as cognitive and behavioral assessments. Children in the study group had significantly shorter total sleep time, reduced sleep efficiency, and increased number of nighttime awakenings. There were significant correlations between sleep variables, and cognitive and behavioral scores. In conclusion, children who fail to qualify for first grade have significantly inferior sleep patterns. Sleep disturbances were associated with cognitive and emotional immaturity.”

Following internal fixation of intertrochanteric hip fractures, tip apex distance, fracture classification, position of the screw in the femoral head, and fracture reduction are known predictors for screw cutout, but the reliability of these measurements is unknown. We investigated the reliability of the tip apex distance measurement, the Cleveland femoral head dividing system, the three-grade classification system of Baumgaertner for fracture reduction, and the AO classification system as predictors for screw cutout.

Methods: All patients with an intertrochanteric hip fracture who were managed with either a dynamic hip screw or a gamma nail between January 2007 and June 2010 were evaluated from our hip trauma database.

The time and cycles to failure were calculated The data was comp

The time and cycles to failure were calculated. The data was compared using a Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, with a significance level of p<0.05.

Results: GT-X files rotated for a significantly longer period of time before

separation occurred, thus GT-X files where more resistant to the Nocodazole ic50 cyclic fatigue compared with ProTaper.

Conclusion: GT-X files have a greater resistance to cyclic fatigue, this fact can be caused by the use of the Ni-Ti alloy “”M-Wire”".”
“Objectives: To compare outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with saphenous vein patch closure (SV), with cervical vein (external jugular and common facial) patch closure (CV).

Design: A total of 322 cases of CEA

was achieved consecutively by using venous patch angioplasty. Propensity scores were calculated check details followed by a one-to-one basis case-matching.

Materials: This resulted into 90 SV and 90 CV matched cases.

Methods: The primary endpoint was the incidence of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack at any time during follow-up.

Results: Ten-year freedom from stroke was 94.1% +/- 3.5% for the SV group and 90.5% +/- 4.2% for the CV group (log rank P = 0.230). Ten-year freedom from ipsilateral neurological events (stroke and transient ischaemic attack) was 93.5% +/- 3.3% for SV group and 92.4% +/- 3.0% for the CV group (log rank P = 0.403). Ten-year freedom from >= 75% stenosis/occlusion was 93.1 +/- 4.8% for the SV group and 89.9 +/- 6.0% for the CV group (log rank P = 0.481).

Conclusions: CV is a good alternative to SV patching, particularly when the

SV needs to be preserved for further use or is unsuitable. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Complete oocyte lysis in in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a rare event, but one against which we remain helpless. The recurrence of this phenomenon in some women in each of their IVF attempts, regardless of treatment, together with the results of animal experiments led us to investigate the possible involvement of the genes encoding for the glycoproteins constituting the zona pellucida (ZP).

Over BVD-523 the last ten years, during which we treated over 500 women each year, three women suffered recurrent oocyte lysis during their IVF attempts in our Centre for Reproductive Biology. For each of these three cases, we sequenced the four genes and promoter sequences encoding the glycoproteins of the ZP. The sequence variations likely to cause a change in protein expression or structure, were investigated in a control group of 35 women who underwent IVF without oocyte lysis and with normal rates of fertilization.

We found no mutations in the ZP genes sequenced. Only some polymorphisms present in the control group and in the general population were detected, excluding their specific involvement in the phenotype observed.

A year later, the patient has no dysphagia or any other symptoms

A year later, the patient has no dysphagia or any other symptoms.”
“Background. The optimal method of both predicting and preventing cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in lung transplant recipients remains unclear. In particular, the most appropriate duration of CMV prophylaxis post transplant is unresolved. We report herein our experience with a planned indefinite regimen of valganciclovir prophylaxis and monitoring

of quantitative CMV load in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.

Methods. We performed a single-center observational study with both prospective and retrospective components. The included patients (n = 128) received a planned regimen of indefinite valganciclovir prophylaxis post transplant, regardless of donor (D)/recipient (R) CMV serostatus.

Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of CMV in BAL was prospectively performed over a 1-year LY2835219 period. PCI32765 Clinical data were reviewed retrospectively; median follow-up was 24.8 months (range 1-93 months).

Results. Sixty-five patients (50.6%) discontinued valganciclovir prophylaxis, either temporarily or permanently, with a primary cause of mild leukopenia. Six cases of CMV disease were identified (4.7%), with no significant difference between those who were on continuous prophylaxis or not (4.6% vs. 4.9%; P = nonsignificant [ns]). However, those who discontinued prophylaxis showed an increased incidence of laboratory-detected CMV infection (40.7% vs. 12.7%; P = 0.001). High-risk D+/R- patients did not demonstrate a significantly increased incidence of CMV disease (8.1% vs. 3.3% other serotypes; P = ns). Three patients (2.3%) developed valganciclovir-resistant CMV disease. Molecular detection of CMV in BAL fluid was significantly more sensitive than shell vial culture. However, BAL CMV viral load was not predictive of subsequent disease development.

Conclusions. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis for all lung transplant recipients led to a low incidence of CMV disease and resistance. In such low-incidence populations, routine quantitation of CMV

in BAL did not confer significant clinical benefit over non-quantitative methods in prediction of CMV disease onset.”

To see more identify barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic musculoskeletal pain among patients with comorbid pain and depression.


A qualitative study using focus group methodology.


Veteran Affairs (VA) and University primary care clinics.


Recruited after participation in a clinical trial.


The Stepped Care for Affective Disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) trial tested an intervention of optimized antidepressant therapy combined with a pain self-management program versus usual care for primary care patients with comorbid chronic pain and depression.

Outcome Measures.

Thematic content analysis from focus group data was used to identify patient-perceived barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.


The corresponding amount of enzyme that could be inhaled was sign

The corresponding amount of enzyme that could be inhaled was significantly less than allowed in occupational situations. The second study was a 6-month, controlled-use study involving approximately 100 subjects with confirmed atopic status by skin prick testing with common aeroallergens. The study involved daily exaggerated use of the pre-spotter product for 6 months, with prick testing for the protease Epoxomicin carried out at baseline,

3 and 6 months. Results from the clinical study indicated that none of the subjects exhibited reactions that would indicate sensitization to the protease by inhalation. The principal limitations of the study were the relatively small number of subjects and the limited duration (96 completed the entire 6-month exposure program).”
“Aim: We investigated global DNA methylation alterations in lymphocytes of solvent workers and chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) patients and explored potential gene-environment interactions for GST. Population & methods: A cross-sectional study was set up in 41 referents, 128 solvent workers and 23 CTE patients. Results: We found a global DNA hypermethylation in the solvent-exposed population compared

with the referents (p = 0.001, r = -0.544). Global DNA methylation was negatively associated with exposure. Furthermore, GSTP1 genotypic polymorphism was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.033) with global DNA hypomethylation, which indicates a potential role for gene-environment interaction in the etiology of solvent-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Conclusion: This study indicates CA4P chemical structure that solvent-induced DNA methylation alterations have an impact on neurotoxicity and development

of CTE.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of passage of hydrocodone and its active metabolite, hydromorphone, into breast milk.

METHODS: This is a pharmacokinetic study of 30 postpartum women receiving hydrocodone bitartrate for postpartum pain in the inpatient setting. Mothers donated timed breast milk samples for the analysis of hydrocodone and hydromorphone.

RESULTS: Fully breastfed neonates received 1.6% (range 0.2%-9%) of the maternal weight-adjusted hydrocodone bitartrate dosage. When combined with hydromorphone, Kinase Inhibitor Library the total median opiate dosage from breast milk is 0.7% of a therapeutic dosage for older infants. Most mothers excreted little to no hydromorphone into breast milk.

CONCLUSION: Standard postpartum dosages of hydrocodone bitartrate appear to be acceptable to use in women nursing newborns. Prolonged use of high dosages is not advisable. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:611-7) DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820ca504″
“Objective: The American Heart Association recently recommended regional cardiac resuscitation centers (CRCs) for post-resuscitation care following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our objective was to describe initial experience with CRC implementation.

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0 01) Surgical staging signif

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0.01). Surgical staging significantly reduced postoperative red blood cell (P = 0.03), and after-hours red blood cell (P < 0.01) and component requirements (P = 0.04). Mean total inpatient costs were $89,132 lower for patients undergoing the staged procedure (95% confidence interval of mean cost difference = -$178,899 to -$4661).

Conclusion. Separating the

anterior exposure and posterior resection phases of complex sacral tumor resection into two separate surgical episodes of care is associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced inpatient cost.”
“A 10-year, retrospective review of the risk factors AZD4547 research buy and clinical outcome of childhood ischemic stroke treated in a single tertiary care center was

conducted. Sixty-two children were identified (33 boys and 29 girls), ages 1 month to 17 years. Risk factors included vasculopathy (35.5%), cardiac disease (17.4%), metabolic disorder (14.5%), infection (14.5%), and coagulopathy (1.6%). Nine patients (14.5%) had no identifiable cause of stroke and 1 patient had 2 risk factors. Hemiplegia (69.3%) and seizures (32.3%) were the most common presenting features, and seizures were significantly more frequent in children <12 months of age than in older children (71.4% Z-DEVD-FMK purchase vs 20.8%, P = .001). Recurrence of stroke occurred in 55.6% of patients with metabolic disorder, 33.3% of those with cardiac disease, and 19.0% of those with vasculopathy. Vasculopathy including moyamoya disease was the most important risk factor for ischemic stroke in Korea, and their prognosis were varied with the etiology of stroke.”
“Spinal cord stimulation has been shown

to be an effective and well-established treatment for failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, and other neuropathic pain states. Recent advances in this therapy have led to its use in enhancing blood flow and reducing ischemic pain patterns. The application of spinal cord stimulation to treat angina and improve outcomes in patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease is now becoming a part of the algorithmic standard of care. This article examines the selection of patients, application of the therapy, outcomes, and future uses of stimulation for patients afflicted with these diseases. This article also examines possible study protocols to further examine the overall selleck inhibitor outcome of these therapies.”
“Optimizing the possibilities for kidney-paired donation (KPD) requires the participation of donor-recipient pairs from wide geographic regions. Initially it was envisaged that donors would travel to the recipient center; however, to minimize barriers to participation and simplify logistics, recent trends have involved transporting the kidneys rather than the donors. The goal of this study was to review outcomes of this practice. KPD programs throughout the United States were directly queried about all transplants involving live donor kidney transport.

In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the pre

In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement.”
“Spinal manipulation is a form of back and other musculoskeletal pain treatment that often involves a high-velocity thrust, a technique in which the joints are adjusted rapidly. The main objective of chiropractors is to correct spinal malalignment

and relieve the nerves, allowing them to function optimally (Ernst In: Expert Rev Neurother 7:1451-1452, 2007; Oppenheim et al. In: Spine J 5:660-666, 2005). The evidence for the effectiveness of this treatment based on randomized clinical trials still remains uncertain (Cassidy et al. In: Spine 33(4 suppl): S176-S183, 2008; Dupeyron et al. In: Ann Readapt Med Phys 46:33-40, 2003; Ernst et al. In: Expert Rev Neurother 7: 1451-1452, 2007; Hurwitz et al. In: J Manipulative Physiol Ther 27:16-25, 2007; Thiel et al. In: Spine 32: 2375-2378, 2007). Several case reports and series selleck inhibitor have been focusing on the risks of chiropraxis, especially on the cervical spine, although the Daporinad price risk/benefit ratio for certain selected patients could be acceptable (Powell et al. In: Neurosurgery 33:73-78, 1993). We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who suffered complete paraplegia shortly after a chiropractic maneuver in the thoracic spine. Dorsal CT showed a calcified disc

herniation at the T8-T9 level and MRI revealed a diffuse spinal cord ischemia from T6 to the conus medullaris without spinal cord compression at the level of herniation. Despite a normal arteriography, authors suggest a vascular injury as the cause of the deficit.”
“Delays in treatment may complicate the treatment of mandibular trauma, leading to a bone healing in an abnormal position and to a posttraumatic mandibular deformity such as malunion, malocclusion, HIF inhibitor and asymmetry. All these features may make delayed treatment a challenging

issue. Therefore, early reduction and fixation of displaced mandibular fractures is mandatory to allow precocious healing and return to the normal function. In this article, we describe a patient treated in our unit for a diagnosed posttraumatic malocclusion after lack of primary trauma treatment.”
“Objectives: To identify whether speech recognition outcomes are influenced by the choice of ear for cochlear implantation in adults with bilateral hearing loss who use a hearing aid in 1 ear but have long-term auditory deprivation in the other.

Study Design: Retrospective matched cohort study. Speech recognition results were examined in 30 adults with monaural sound deprivation. Fifteen received the implant in the sound-deprived ear and 15 in the aided ear.

Setting: Tertiary referral centers with active cochlear implant programs.

Patients: Adults with bilateral hearing loss and a minimum of 15 years of monaural sound deprivation who received a cochlear implant after meeting the traditional implantation criteria of the referral centers.

Twenty-seven women with HH received a 150 IU fixed daily subcutan

Twenty-seven women with HH received a 150 IU fixed daily subcutaneous dose of recombinant human FSH, supplemented by 75 IU daily dose of rHLH given either as a single dose (n = 9; single-dose group) or four equally divided doses (n = 18; split-dose group). Ovulation was defined by three efficacy end points: at least one follicle >= 17 mm in diameter, pre-ovulatory serum oestradiol >= 400 pmol/l and a midluteal progesterone >= 25 nmol/l. Although lacking statistical significance, the proportion of women in the rHLH split-dose group who fulfilled all three end points was higher than the single-dose group (72.2% versus 55.6%). Women in the split-dose group achieved higher serum oestradiol concentrations

per follicle, endometrial thickness measurements and numbers of follicles than in the single-dose group (not statistically significant). The odds ratio for ovulation rate was 2.08 (not statistically significant). There VX-770 clinical trial were no serious untoward side effects. Administering rHLH in split daily doses could provide superior results compared with the traditional single daily

dose. RBMOnline (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Endometriosis is a steroid-dependent complex disease. The oestrogen receptor plays an important role by mediating oestrogen action and eutopic or ectopic endometrium development. BI 6727 in vitro This study investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes for oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) are associated with endometriosis and endometriosis-related

infertility. The participants included 157 infertile and 155 fertile endometriosis women as well as 92 women with primary infertility and 265 fertile women as controls. The iPLEX Gold system (MassARRAY system, Sequenom) was used for genotyping of ESR1 and ESR2. Statistical analysis showed that ESR1 (rs3798573 A/G) was significantly associated with endometriosis and endometriosis-related infertility (P = 0.011, P THZ1 mw = 0.009). No association was found with ESR1 (rs1159327 A/G, rs3020348 A/C) and ESR2 (rs17179740 A/G) either for endometriosis or endometriosis-related infertility. According to the revised American Fertility Society classification, all of the detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms had no association with endometriosis in stage I-II or in stage III-IV. The results suggest that the ESR1 polymorphism rs3798573 A/G is associated with increased risk of endometriosis and endometriosis-related infertility in Han women from central China. RBMOnline (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cervico-isthmic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in high-resolution ultrasound have made the diagnosis of early cervico-isthmic pregnancies easier. Early diagnosis allows a more conservative therapeutic approach that avoids hysterectomy and preserves fertility.

7 times higher than that of cTFM The sensory scores for cRFM wer

7 times higher than that of cTFM. The sensory scores for cRFM were uniformly higher than those for cTFM.”
“Three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins named celosins H (1), I (2), and J (3) were isolated from the seeds of Celosia argentea L. Their structures were characterized as 3-O–d-xylopyranosyl-(13)–d-glucuronopyranosyl-polygalagenin 28-O–d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O–d-glucuronopyranosyl-medicagenic acid 28-O–d-xylcopyranosyl-(14)–l-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)–d-fucopyranosyl ester, and 3-O–d-glucuronopyranosyl-medicagenic acid 28-O–l-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-[-d-xylcopyranosyl-(14)]–l-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)–d-fucopyranosyl

ester by NMR, MS, and chemical evidences, respectively. In our opinion, celosins H-J could be used as chemical markers for the find more quality control of C. argentea seeds.”
“Oxidative stress mechanisms have been implicated in congenital anomalies and morbidity/mortality of fetus/newborn in diabetic pregnancy. Numerous antioxidant treatments have shown varied beneficial effects in improving both maternal and fetal outcomes. The present study examined the propensity NCT-501 cost of taurine to attenuate the degree of embryopathy and oxidative stress among pregnant diabetic rats. Adult rats (CFT-Wistar) were rendered diabetic with an acute dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg bodyweight) on gestation day (GD) 4. Both

Diabetic and non-diabetic dams were given oral supplements of taurine (0.5 and 1 g/kg bodyweight/day) from DZNeP in vitro GD 5 to GD 12. Maternal diet intake, bodyweight gain and urine output were monitored and dams were killed on GD 13. Markers of oxidative stress were determined in embryos and maternal livers. STZ treatment induced marked embryopathy (32%) and taurine supplements markedly reduced the degree of embryopathy (54% protection). The STZ-induced

higher oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in rats given taurine supplements (P < 0.05) and a similar effect was seen in embryos (P < 0.05). These data suggest that dietary taurine during pregnancy provides significant protection against diabetes-induced oxidative stress in both the mother and the embryos and thus may serve as a therapeutic supplement during diabetic pregnancy. (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study, chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts of Solanum torvum and Solanum nigrum leaves and fruit were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS(center dot+), iron chelation, and antihemolytic activity. Among the various solvents used, the maximum yield was obtained in chloroform followed by acetone and methanol. The total phenolics were also significantly higher in the chloroform extracts and the in vitro antioxidant activity was shown to be highly dependant on the total phenolic content (p < 0.01).

Integrated care changed the patient distribution, allowing the ca

Integrated care changed the patient distribution, allowing the cardiologist to focus on serious pathologies while cardiovascular risk factors and stable patients were monitored in primary care. In ischemic heart disease, improvement

was observed in cholesterol management and blood pressure control; optimal medical treatment was more frequently prescribed and ventricular function Nutlin-3 supplier evaluated more often. In heart failure, beta-blockers treatment increased and functional class was assessed more often. In atrial fibrillation, an increase in anticoagulation prescription and echocardiography evaluation was observed. Satisfaction parameters improved with integrated care. The use of resources was not increased.

Conclusions: Using our integration model, follow-up and chronic treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation were improved. Monitoring of chronic patients was redistributed between primary care and cardiology, and family physicians’ satisfaction levels improved. There was no increase in use of resources. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present review is to provide an update of the epidemiological evidence of the effects of air pollution on neuropsychological development and impairment, as well as of the evidence

on individual susceptibility to these effects. Animal studies have shown deposition of ultrafine particles containing metals

in olfactory bulb and frontal cortical and subcortical areas, and overexpression of inflammatory responses, white GDC 0032 concentration matter lesions and vascular pathology in these areas that could be the basis for functional and structural brain Selleckchem YM155 effects. Several observational studies in the general population have observed cognitive deficits and behavioural impairment in children and the elderly. These effects, however, are not conclusive given the limited number of studies, their small size and their methodological constraints.”
“We assessed knowledge and perceptions of epilepsy held by Korean adolescents in the general population, and investigated factors important in adolescents’ perceptions of stigma with respect to epilepsy. Surveys were distributed to students at 22 schools. A total of 1377 students participated. Fewer than half of all students (45.1%) reported hearing or reading about epilepsy. Overall, students showed a general lack of familiarity with and knowledge of epilepsy. Stigma perception scores were significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05) and in middle school than in high school (P<0.05) students. We also found that stigma perception scores were significantly correlated with both younger age (r=-0.074, P=0.006) and lower knowledge scores (r=-0.404, P=0.000). Linear regression analysis showed that stigma-related perception was associated with lower knowledge scores (P<0.001) and middle school (P<0.05).

The prediction error was calculated as the difference between the

The prediction error was calculated as the difference between the predicted and the measured refraction 1 month postoperatively.

RESULTS: Forty-three

consecutive patients were enrolled. The mean arithmetic error was zero for all combinations of measurements due to constant optimization. Using the Hoffer Q formula, the mean absolute prediction errors OICR-9429 purchase were 0.23 diopters (D) +/- 0.22 (SD) for the corneal topographer simulated K, 0.21 +/- 0.18 D for the Scheimpflug simulated K, and 0.27 +/- 0.20 D for the Scheimpflug total corneal power (P>.05). No statistically significant different results (compared with the Hoffer Q formula) were obtained with the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulas.

CONCLUSIONS: Both devices provided corneal power measurements that led to accurate IOL power calculation. The total corneal power by the dual Scheimpflug system is the first corneal power measurement shown to

lead to accurate IOL power calculation without using the standard keratometric index.”
“In this study, we examined the effect of alkali treatment and its variables, namely, the time (2, 4, 6, or 8 h) and the concentration of alkali (1, 5, or 17.5% w/w), on the linear density, strength, and stress-relaxation properties LY411575 supplier of jute fiber. It was demonstrated that this kind of treatment led to the creation of several voids and fiber learn more fibrillation. Properties were measured for the alkali-treated and dewaxed fibers. The linear density and tenacity of the fibers were reduced at higher alkali concentration and at longer dipping times. The strength increased with treatment

with mild alkali and decreased with treatment with the strong alkali. A very low alkali treatment (1%) rendered low relaxation. At a 5% alkali concentration, interfibrillar matrix softening also played an important role and was prominent in the stress-relaxation behavior. The stress-relaxation value was much higher in the fibers treated with 17.5% NaOH compared to the dewaxed fibers; this was probably due to a loss in the fibrillar arrangement. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1348-1358, 2012″
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether social network factors predict HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) serostatus after controlling for individual-level factors at baseline among a cohort of male injection drug users in Chennai, India.

Methods: The sample, which was recruited through street outreach, consists of 1078 males who reported having injected drugs in the last 6 months.